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      Loganin Attenuates Septic Acute Renal Injury with the Participation of AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Sepsis, a destructive inflammatory response syndrome, is the principal reason to induce death in the intensive care unit. Loganin has been proved to possess the property of anti-inflammation, antioxidant, neuroprotection, and sedation. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether Loganin could alleviate acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis and investigate the latent mechanisms.

          Methods

          Septic AKI models were established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery in mice and given Loganin (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) by gavage. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated human kidney proximal tubular (HK2) cells incubated in Loganin (5, 10, 20 μ M) were used to explore the accurate mechanisms. Survival rate, renal function (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and renal pathological changes were detected in septic mice. Oxidative stress markers (SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, and SOD), mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial calcium overload, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathway activation in vivo and in vitro were determined by commercial kits and Western blot. Cell apoptosis, apoptotic-related protein (cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax) expression and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro were measured by TUNEL staining and Western blot. Finally, AKT blockage by 10 μM LY294002 or Nrf2 inhibition by10 μ M ML385 were utilized to prove the involvement of AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in AKI during sepsis.

          Results

          We found Loganin treatment (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) mitigated septic AKI reflected by elevated renal function and palliative pathological changes. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in the kidney and LPS-treated HK2 cells were also inhibited by Loganin administration, which was accompanied by AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway activation. Besides, the protective effects of Loganin could be diminished by AKT or Nrf2 blockage, indicating the involvement of AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

          Conclusion

          The results suggested that the protective effects of Loganin on AKI during sepsis might be mediated by AKT and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway signaling activation in kidney proximal tubular cells.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3).

          Definitions of sepsis and septic shock were last revised in 2001. Considerable advances have since been made into the pathobiology (changes in organ function, morphology, cell biology, biochemistry, immunology, and circulation), management, and epidemiology of sepsis, suggesting the need for reexamination.
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            Cecal ligation and puncture: the gold standard model for polymicrobial sepsis?

            Sepsis is a serious medical condition characterized by dysregulated systemic inflammatory responses followed by immunosuppression. To study the pathophysiology of sepsis, diverse animal models have been developed. Polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is the most frequently used model because it closely resembles the progression and characteristics of human sepsis. Here we summarize the role of several immune components in the pathogenesis of sepsis induced by CLP. However, several therapies proposed on the basis of promising results obtained by CLP could not be translated to the clinic. This demonstrates that experimental sepsis models do not completely mimic human sepsis. We propose several strategies to narrow the gap between experimental sepsis models and clinical sepsis, including targeting factors that contribute to the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis, and reproducing the heterogeneity of human patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Cell survival responses to environmental stresses via the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway.

              Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling plays a significant role in protecting cells from endogenous and exogenous stresses. The development of Nrf2 knockout mice has provided key insights into the toxicological importance of this pathway. These mice are more sensitive to the hepatic, pulmonary, ovarian, and neurotoxic consequences of acute exposures to environmental agents and drugs, inflammatory stresses, as well as chronic exposures to cigarette smoke and other carcinogens. Under quiescent conditions, the transcription factor Nrf2 interacts with the actin-anchored protein Keap1, largely localized in the cytoplasm. This quenching interaction maintains low basal expression of Nrf2-regulated genes. However, upon recognition of chemical signals imparted by oxidative and electrophilic molecules, Nrf2 is released from Keap1, escapes proteasomal degradation, translocates to the nucleus, and transactivates the expression of several dozen cytoprotective genes that enhance cell survival. This review highlights the key elements in this adaptive response to protection against acute and chronic cell injury provoked by environmental stresses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                11 February 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 501-513
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin Medical University , Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Critical Care Medicine, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University , Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kaijiang Yu Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin Medical University , 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin, Heilongjiang150001, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-451-53643849 Email Yu_kaijiang@126.com
                Article
                294266
                10.2147/DDDT.S294266
                7886113
                © 2021 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 41, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                nrf2/ho-1, sepsis, akt, loganin, acute kidney injury

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