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      Pulse rate, coronary heart disease, and death: The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study

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      American Heart Journal

      Elsevier BV

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          Heart rate as a prognostic factor for coronary heart disease and mortality: findings in three Chicago epidemiologic studies.

          The associations between heart rate and death from the cardiovascular diseases (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden death from CHD, along with death from all causes and non-cardiovascular causes, are examined for three groups of middle-aged white males: 1233 men aged 40-59 years followed for 15 years from the Chicago Peoples Gas Company study; 1899 men aged 40-55 years followed for 17 years from the Chicago Western Electric Company study; and 5784 men aged 45-64 years followed an average of five years from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry. In univariate analyses, mortality from both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes generally increases with increasing heart rate. In bivariate analyses, using the Cox regression model to control for age, heart rate is significantly related to mortality from all causes in each study, with the associations again due to both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes. In multivariate Cox regression, controlling for age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, cigarettes smoked per day and relative weight, heart rate is a significant risk factor for sudden CHD death and non-CVD death in two of the three studies, with the association with sudden death being U-shaped in one of the studies. Although heart rate may be an independent risk factor for sudden CHD death, the associations with other CVD death and non-sudden CHD death, in general, appear to be secondary to associations between heart rate and other cardiovascular risk factors.
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            Validity of mortality analysis based on retrospective smoking information.

            We assess the validity of mortality analysis based on retrospective reporting of smoking habits by subjects and proxies after a time lag of approximately ten years. The analysis is based on 2855 subject respondents and 615 proxy respondents to the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Survey (NHEFS), a national followup study of persons examined in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Persons 45-77 years of age at baseline were selected for analysis. Using three categories of smoking at baseline (current, former, never), the retrospective classification (NHEFS) matched the NHANES I classification for 89 per cent of the subject respondents and 83 per cent of the proxy respondents. Agreement levels were higher for women (92 per cent of subjects and 89 per cent of proxies) than for men (85 and 80 per cent). We used Cox regression models to assess the use of retrospective smoking information in an analysis of the relationship between selected risk factors and mortality for persons 45-64 years of age. There were few substantive differences in results with use of NHEFS smoking data versus NHANES I smoking data. In particular, the effects of age, systolic blood pressure, education, and race on mortality were not sensitive to the source of the smoking data (NHANES I or NHEFS) or the form of the smoking variable (two-, three-, or six-level categorization). The effects of body mass index on mortality were sensitive to the form of the smoking variable but results based on NHANES I and NHEFS were quite similar. These results suggest that smoking information obtained from proxy respondents is adequate for analyses of the risk of total mortality associated with smoking and other risk factors. Further assessment is needed to determine the adequacy of such data for analyses of mortality from specific causes that are sensitive to amount smoked or duration of smoking.
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              Reliability of surrogate information on cigarette smoking by type of informant.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Heart Journal
                American Heart Journal
                Elsevier BV
                00028703
                January 1991
                January 1991
                : 121
                : 1
                : 172-177
                Article
                10.1016/0002-8703(91)90970-S
                © 1991

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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