42
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles via Biological Entities

      review-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Nanotechnology is the creation, manipulation and use of materials at the nanometre size scale (1 to 100 nm). At this size scale there are significant differences in many material properties that are normally not seen in the same materials at larger scales. Although nanoscale materials can be produced using a variety of traditional physical and chemical processes, it is now possible to biologically synthesize materials via environment-friendly green chemistry based techniques. In recent years, the convergence between nanotechnology and biology has created the new field of nanobiotechnology that incorporates the use of biological entities such as actinomycetes algae, bacteria, fungi, viruses, yeasts, and plants in a number of biochemical and biophysical processes. The biological synthesis via nanobiotechnology processes have a significant potential to boost nanoparticles production without the use of harsh, toxic, and expensive chemicals commonly used in conventional physical and chemical processes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent trends in synthesizing nanoparticles via biological entities and their potential applications.

          Related collections

          Most cited references252

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection.

          W Chan, S Nie (1998)
          Highly luminescent semiconductor quantum dots (zinc sulfide-capped cadmium selenide) have been covalently coupled to biomolecules for use in ultrasensitive biological detection. In comparison with organic dyes such as rhodamine, this class of luminescent labels is 20 times as bright, 100 times as stable against photobleaching, and one-third as wide in spectral linewidth. These nanometer-sized conjugates are water-soluble and biocompatible. Quantum dots that were labeled with the protein transferrin underwent receptor-mediated endocytosis in cultured HeLa cells, and those dots that were labeled with immunomolecules recognized specific antibodies or antigens.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance.

            Metal nanoshells are a class of nanoparticles with tunable optical resonances. In this article, an application of this technology to thermal ablative therapy for cancer is described. By tuning the nanoshells to strongly absorb light in the near infrared, where optical transmission through tissue is optimal, a distribution of nanoshells at depth in tissue can be used to deliver a therapeutic dose of heat by using moderately low exposures of extracorporeally applied near-infrared (NIR) light. Human breast carcinoma cells incubated with nanoshells in vitro were found to have undergone photothermally induced morbidity on exposure to NIR light (820 nm, 35 W/cm2), as determined by using a fluorescent viability stain. Cells without nanoshells displayed no loss in viability after the same periods and conditions of NIR illumination. Likewise, in vivo studies under magnetic resonance guidance revealed that exposure to low doses of NIR light (820 nm, 4 W/cm2) in solid tumors treated with metal nanoshells reached average maximum temperatures capable of inducing irreversible tissue damage (DeltaT = 37.4 +/- 6.6 degrees C) within 4-6 min. Controls treated without nanoshells demonstrated significantly lower average temperatures on exposure to NIR light (DeltaT < 10 degrees C). These findings demonstrated good correlation with histological findings. Tissues heated above the thermal damage threshold displayed coagulation, cell shrinkage, and loss of nuclear staining, which are indicators of irreversible thermal damage. Control tissues appeared undamaged.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Silver colloid nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and their antibacterial activity.

              A one-step simple synthesis of silver colloid nanoparticles with controllable sizes is presented. In this synthesis, reduction of [Ag(NH(3))(2)](+) complex cation by four saccharides was performed. Four saccharides were used: two monosaccharides (glucose and galactose) and two disaccharides (maltose and lactose). The syntheses performed at various ammonia concentrations (0.005-0.20 mol L(-1)) and pH conditions (11.5-13.0) produced a wide range of particle sizes (25-450 nm) with narrow size distributions, especially at the lowest ammonia concentrations. The average size, size distribution, morphology, and structure of particles were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV/Visible absorption spectrophotometry. The influence of the saccharide structure (monosacharides versus disaccharides) on the size of silver particles is briefly discussed. The reduction of [Ag(NH(3))(2)](+) by maltose produced silver particles with a narrow size distribution with an average size of 25 nm, which showed high antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including highly multiresistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was found to be dependent on the size of silver particles. A very low concentration of silver (as low as 1.69 mug/mL Ag) gave antibacterial performance.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                29 October 2015
                November 2015
                : 8
                : 11
                : 7278-7308
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Murdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Faculty of Minerals and Energy, School of Engineering and Energy, Murdoch University, Murdoch WA 6150, Australia; monalinikunj.shah@ 123456gmail.com (M.S.); D.Fawcett@ 123456murdoch.edu.au (D.F.)
                [2 ]Biosecurity and Food Security Academy, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Agricultural Sciences Murdoch University, Murdoch WA 6150, Australia; S. Sharma@ 123456murdoch.edu.au
                [3 ]School of Biotechnology, School of Applied Sciences, KIIT University, Campus-11, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha, India; suraj.tripathy@ 123456kiitbiotech.ac.in
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondance: g.poinern@ 123456murdoch.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-8-9360-2892; Fax: +61-8-9360-6183
                Article
                materials-08-05377
                10.3390/ma8115377
                5458933
                28793638
                09dccc1e-c1f0-4381-b78c-47f496f498fe
                © 2015 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                green chemistry,biological synthesis,nanoparticles
                green chemistry, biological synthesis, nanoparticles

                Comments

                Comment on this article