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      Peripheral Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Combination with Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation in Patients with Cardiovascular Compromise

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          Abstract

          Objectives: Patients with profound cardiovascular compromise have poor prognosis despite inotropic and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support. Peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) offers these patients temporary support as a bridge to various options including the ‘bridge to recovery'. Methods: We studied the outcomes of 135 patients who underwent peripheral V-A ECMO and concomitant IABP implantation in our hospital from 2007 to 2012 for various clinical indications. The ECMO circuit consisted of a centrifugal pump and an oxygenator. Results: V-A ECMO was implanted in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in 51 patients (37.8%), at the bedside in 5 (3.7%) and in the operating room in 79 (58.5%). Mean duration of support was 8.5 ± 7.1 days. Median length of stay was 28 days (interquartile range 14-62). Complications included bleeding at the access site in 14.1%, stroke in 11.1% and vascular complications requiring intervention in 16.3%. Overall inhospital survival was 57.8% with outcomes including heart transplantation (3%), implantable left ventricular assist device (8.1% as bridge to transplantation and 6.7% as destination therapy), surgery (7.4%) and myocardial recovery (40.7%). Prior IABP use and axillary cannulation were independent predictors of reduced inhospital mortality, stroke or vascular injury. Conclusions: Peripheral V-A ECMO with IABP is an effective therapy for patients with severely compromised cardiovascular function. It offers reasonable survival and a spectrum of definitive options from ‘bridge to recovery' to heart transplantation for the management of this critically ill population.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Vascular complications in patients undergoing femoral cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

          Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a well-established treatment for severe cardiopulmonary failure. Patients undergoing ECMO support through femoral vessels are prone to vascular complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate such complications to outline basic technical principles for their prevention. From January 2005 to December 2009, 174 patients underwent ECMO support through cannulation of the femoral vessels. The primary outcome was any vascular complication. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and 1-year survival. A logistic regression analysis including ECMO duration, peripheral arterial disease, ECMO access (percutaneous versus open), and diabetes mellitus identified predictors for vascular complications. The venoarterial mode was used in 143 patients (82%), and venovenous in 31 patients (18%). Of the 17 (10%) observed vascular complications, 15 (88%) occurred in patients with venoarterial access, whereas 2 (12%) occurred after venovenous access (p=0.50) Two patients who had extremity ischemia required limb amputation. Thirty-day mortality and 1-year survival rates were 63% and 26%, respectively. Peripheral arterial disease was the only strong predictor of vascular complications (odds ratio, 6.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.89 to 25.59; p=0.003). Vascular complications were not associated with early or late mortality. The incidence of vascular complications in venovenous cannulation was low, whereas in arterial cannulation, it is still considerable. Peripheral arterial disease remains a risk factor, and early involvement of vascular surgeons for open vascular exposure or alternative vascular access sites can be recommended. Vascular complications after ECMO support are not associated with higher mortality rates. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Clinical experience with 202 adults receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac failure: survival at five years.

            We sought to determine 5-year survival after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac failure and its predictors, to assess survival and its predictors after bridging to transplantation or weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and to identify factors influencing the likelihood of these outcomes. Two hundred two adults (mean age, 55 +/- 14 years) were supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between 1992 and July 1999 after cardiac failure. Follow-up extended to 7.5 years (mean, 3.8 +/- 2 years). Multivariable hazard function analysis identified predictors of survival, and logistic regression identified the determinants of bridging or weaning. Survival at 3 days, 30 days, and 5 years was 76%, 38%, and 24%, respectively. Patients surviving 30 days had a 63% 5-year survival. Risk factors (P <.1) included older age, reoperation, and thoracic aorta repair. Forty-eight patients were bridged to transplantation, and 71 were weaned with intent for survival. Survival was similar after either outcome (44% vs 40% 5-year survival, respectively). Failure to bridge or wean included (P <.03) renal and hepatic failure on extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support, occurrence of a neurologic event, and absence of infection. The dominant modes of death were cardiac failure and multisystem organ failure. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is versatile and salvages some patients who would otherwise die. Improvement in intermediate-term outcome will require a multidisciplinary approach to protect organ function and limit organ injury before and during this support.
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              Decompression of the left atrium during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using a transseptal cannula incorporated into the circuit.

              When extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used in the setting of severe myocardial dysfunction, left ventricular end-diastolic and left atrial pressure can rise to extremely high levels. Decompression of the left atrium in this setting is essential for resolution of pulmonary edema and recovery of left ventricular function. We sought to evaluate whether adequate left atrial decompression can be achieved via percutaneous placement of a transseptal left atrial drain incorporated in the ECMO venous circuit. Retrospective case series. Tertiary care center pediatric intensive care unit and cardiac catheterization laboratory. Seven patients (age 8 months to 28 yrs) with cardiac failure on venoarterial ECMO with left atrial hypertension. All patients underwent left atrial decompression with transseptal puncture and placement of a drain (8- to 15-Fr) incorporated into the ECMO venous circuit. Catheterization and ECMO records and echocardiograms were reviewed, as were the clinical course and outcome for each patient. The median time from ECMO cannulation to left atrial decompression was 11 hrs. Average initial left atrial pressure was 31 mm Hg. Successful drain placement was achieved in seven patients with no major procedural complications. Echocardiographic improvement in left atrial dilation was achieved in five patients (71%). Inability to decompress the left atrium was fatal in two patients. Four patients were decannulated (57%), and three survived to hospital discharge (43%). Larger sheath size and higher flow rate correlated with a greater likelihood of success. Adequate decompression of the left atrium can be achieved by transseptal placement of a left atrial drain incorporated into the ECMO circuit. This technique represents a reasonable alternative to blade or balloon atrial septostomy for patients requiring left atrial decompression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                October 2014
                27 September 2014
                : 129
                : 3
                : 137-143
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine and bSection of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York Medical College, Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, N.Y., USA
                Author notes
                *Wilbert S. Aronow, MD, FACC, FAHA, Cardiology Division, New York Medical College, Macy Pavilion, Room 138, Valhalla, NY 10595 (USA), E-Mail wsaronow@aol.com
                Article
                365138 Cardiology 2014;129:137-143
                10.1159/000365138
                25277292
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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