Blog
About

29
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      MicroRNAs in Insulin Resistance and Obesity

      1,2,*, 1,2,3

      Experimental Diabetes Research

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short, single-stranded non-protein coding gene products which can regulate the gene expression through post-transcriptional inhibition of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. They are known to be involved in many essential biological processes including development, insulin secretion, and adipocyte differentiation. miRNAs are involved in complex metabolic processes, such as energy and lipid metabolism, which have been studied in the context of diabetes and obesity. Obesity, hyperlipidemia (elevated levels of blood lipids), and insulin resistance are strongly associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. These conditions are also associated with aberrant expression of multiple essential miRNAs in pancreatic islets of Langerhans and peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue. A thorough understanding of the physiological role these miRNAs play in these tissues, and changes to their expression under pathological conditions, will allow researchers to develop new therapeutics with the potential to correct the aberrant expression of miRNAs in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 79

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function.

           David Bartel (2004)
          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 22 nt RNAs that can play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Circulating microRNAs as stable blood-based markers for cancer detection.

            Improved approaches for the detection of common epithelial malignancies are urgently needed to reduce the worldwide morbidity and mortality caused by cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ( approximately 22 nt) regulatory RNAs that are frequently dysregulated in cancer and have shown promise as tissue-based markers for cancer classification and prognostication. We show here that miRNAs are present in human plasma in a remarkably stable form that is protected from endogenous RNase activity. miRNAs originating from human prostate cancer xenografts enter the circulation, are readily measured in plasma, and can robustly distinguish xenografted mice from controls. This concept extends to cancer in humans, where serum levels of miR-141 (a miRNA expressed in prostate cancer) can distinguish patients with prostate cancer from healthy controls. Our results establish the measurement of tumor-derived miRNAs in serum or plasma as an important approach for the blood-based detection of human cancer.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Combinatorial microRNA target predictions.

              MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published microRNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results suggest widespread coordinate control executed by microRNAs. In particular, we experimentally validate common regulation of Mtpn by miR-375, miR-124 and let-7b and thus provide evidence for coordinate microRNA control in mammals.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1O'Brien Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3065, Australia
                2Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3065, Australia
                3Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC 3065, Australia
                Author notes
                *Michael D. Williams: mwilliams.student@123456gmail.com

                Academic Editor: Anandwardhan Hardikar

                Journal
                Exp Diabetes Res
                Exp Diabetes Res
                EDR
                Experimental Diabetes Research
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-5214
                1687-5303
                2012
                18 July 2012
                : 2012
                3407629
                22851965
                10.1155/2012/484696
                Copyright © 2012 M. D. Williams and G. M. Mitchell.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                Comments

                Comment on this article