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      Treatment with zinc, d-aspartate, and coenzyme Q10 protects bull sperm against damage and improves their ability to support embryo development

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      Theriogenology

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 30

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          Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and redox regulation in cellular signaling.

          Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as well as in cellular response to xenobiotics, cytokines, and bacterial invasion. Oxidative stress refers to the imbalance due to excess ROS or oxidants over the capability of the cell to mount an effective antioxidant response. Oxidative stress results in macromolecular damage and is implicated in various disease states such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging. Paradoxically, accumulating evidence indicates that ROS also serve as critical signaling molecules in cell proliferation and survival. While there is a large body of research demonstrating the general effect of oxidative stress on signaling pathways, less is known about the initial and direct regulation of signaling molecules by ROS, or what we term the "oxidative interface." Cellular ROS sensing and metabolism are tightly regulated by a variety of proteins involved in the redox (reduction/oxidation) mechanism. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms through which ROS directly interact with critical signaling molecules to initiate signaling in a broad variety of cellular processes, such as proliferation and survival (MAP kinases, PI3 kinase, PTEN, and protein tyrosine phosphatases), ROS homeostasis and antioxidant gene regulation (thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, Ref-1, and Nrf-2), mitochondrial oxidative stress, apoptosis, and aging (p66Shc), iron homeostasis through iron-sulfur cluster proteins (IRE-IRP), and ATM-regulated DNA damage response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Sperm DNA fragmentation: mechanisms of origin, impact on reproductive outcome, and analysis.

            To review the mechanisms responsible for DNA fragmentation in human sperm, including those occurring during spermatogenesis and transport through the reproductive tract. The mechanisms examined include: apoptosis in the seminiferous tubule epithelium, defects in chromatin remodeling during the process of spermiogenesis, oxygen radical-induced DNA damage during sperm migration from the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis, the activation of sperm caspases and endonucleases, damage induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the effect of environmental toxicants. The different tests currently used for sperm DNA fragmentation analysis and the factors that determine the predictive value of sperm DNA fragmentation testing and their implications in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility are also discussed. Finally, we also scrutinize how the presence in the embryonic genome of DNA strand breaks or modifications of DNA nucleotides inherited from the paternal genome could impact the embryo and offspring. In particular we discuss how abnormal sperm could be dealt with by the oocyte and how sperm DNA abnormalities, which have not been satisfactorily repaired by the oocyte after fertilization, may interfere with normal embryo and fetal development. Sperm DNA can be modified through various mechanisms. The integrity of the paternal genome is therefore of paramount importance in the initiation and maintenance of a viable pregnancy both in a natural conception and in assisted reproduction. The need to diagnose sperm at a nuclear level is an area that needs further understanding so that we can improve treatment of the infertile couple. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              The role of sperm oxidative stress in male infertility and the significance of oral antioxidant therapy.

              Oxidative stress in the male germ line is thought to affect male fertility and impact upon normal embryonic development. Accordingly, fertility specialists are actively exploring the diagnosis of such stress in spermatozoa and evaluating the possible use of antioxidants to ameliorate this condition. In this review, evidence for the presence of oxidative stress in human spermatozoa, the origins of this phenomenon, its clinical significance in the aetiology of male infertility and recent advances in methods for its diagnosis and treatment are re-examined. Moreover, an extensive review of the results presented in published clinical studies has been conducted to evaluate the overall impact of oral antioxidants on measures of sperm oxidative stress and DNA damage. Administration of antioxidants to infertile men has been assessed in numerous clinical studies with at least 20 reports highlighting its effect on measures of oxidative stress in human spermatozoa. A qualitative but detailed review of the results revealed that 19 of the 20 studies conclusively showed a significant reduction relating to some measure of oxidative stress in these cells. Strong evidence also supports improved motility, particularly in asthenospermic patients. However, of these studies, only 10 reported pregnancy-related outcomes, with 6 reporting positive associations. Adequately powered, placebo-controlled comprehensive clinical trials are now required to establish a clear role for antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative stress in the male germ line, such that the clinical utility of this form of therapy becomes established once and for all.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Theriogenology
                Theriogenology
                Elsevier BV
                0093691X
                September 2014
                September 2014
                : 82
                : 4
                : 592-598
                Article
                10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.05.028
                © 2014

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