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      Tinkering with genes and embryos: the multiple invention of transgenic mice c. 1980

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          Abstract

          Genetically modified or ‘transgenic’ mice are a routine experimental tool in biomedical research, commonly produced by injecting DNA into one-cell embryos. These animals were independently invented in 1980 by multiple university groups in the United States and Europe that combined expertise in mouse developmental biology and recombinant DNA techniques, or ‘genetic engineering’. In this article, I examine this multiple invention and argue that research strategies, experimental practices, and funding arrangements that led to transgenic mice are best described as tinkering. These creative and speculative endeavors, combined with partial knowledge of what was happening in competing laboratories, created a fruitful atmosphere for research which led to the multiple invention. The tinkering was, however, underpinned by infrastructures that were crucial to success, some long established, such as mouse supply or embryological tools, and some emerging, such as the informal exchange of isolated genes.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Gene targeting in mice: functional analysis of the mammalian genome for the twenty-first century.

          Gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells has become the 'gold standard' for determining gene function in mammals. Since its inception, this technology has revolutionized the study of mammalian biology and human medicine. Here I provide a personal account of the work that led to the generation of gene targeting which now lies at the centre of functional genomic analysis.
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            Sexually mature individuals of Xenopus laevis from the transplantation of single somatic nuclei.

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              The Oncomouse That Roared: Hybrid Exchange Strategies as a Source of Distinction at the Boundary of Overlapping Institutions

               Fiona Murray (2010)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                101554451
                Hist Technol
                Hist Technol
                History and technology
                0734-1512
                1477-2620
                18 February 2020
                27 January 2020
                2019
                21 February 2020
                : 35
                : 4
                : 425-452
                Affiliations
                Center for the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
                Author notes
                CONTACT Dmitriy Myelnikov dmyelnikov@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                EMS85815
                10.1080/07341512.2019.1694126
                7035111

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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