Objective To explore the relationship between myopia and nutritional status among upper elementary students in Shanghai.
Methods A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 5 576 fourth- and fifth-grade students from 16 districts in Shanghai, vision test, physical examination and questionnaire survey were administered. Two-level multivariate Logistic regression and mixed linear models were used to analyze the relationship between myopia, spherical equivalent (SE) and nutritional status.
Results The detection rates of overweight and obesity were 17.0% (949) and 18.7% (1 042), respectively. There was a statistical difference in the proportion of the nutritional status in boys and girls (χ 2 = 210.94, P < 0.01), with overweight and obesity in boys higher than those of girls. The overweight boys were more likely to have myopia (univariate analysis: OR = 1.23, P = 0.04; multivariate analysis: OR = 1.21, P = 0.06) than the normal-weight boy. Overweight students tended to had more negative refractive than those with normal-weight in both boys and girls (multivariate analysis, boys: β = -0.19, girls: β = -0.24, P < 0.05). Myopia risk and refractive power in obese students showed no statistical difference with normal-weight students ( P > 0.05).
Conclusion Overweight students have lower SE than the normal-weight among upper elementary students of Shanghai, more researches are needed to confirm this finding and to provide theoretical bases for myopia prevention and control.
【摘要】 目的 探索上海市小学高年级学生近视与营养状况的关联, 为开展儿童青少年近视防控提供依据。 方法 采用 多层整群抽样的方法选取上海市16个区四至五年级5 576名学生进行视力检查、体格测量和问卷调查。分别采用两水平 多因素Logistic回归和混合线性模型分析近视和等效球镜度数与营养状况的关联。 结果 高年级学生超重、肥胖检出率分 别为17.0%(949名)和18.7%(1 042名), 男、女生营养状况构成差异有统计学意义(χ 2 = 210.94, P < 0.01), 男生超重、肥胖 占比高于女生。超重男生更倾向于发生近视(单因素: OR = 1.23, P = 0.04;多因素: OR = 1.21, P = 0.06);超重学生屈光度低 于体重正常学生(多因素, 男生: β = -0.19, 女生: β = -0.24, P 值均< 0.05)。肥胖学生近视风险和屈光度与体重正常学生差 异无统计学意义( P 值均> 0.05)。 结论 上海小学高年级超重学生屈光度低于体重正常学生, 需更多的研究验证儿童青少 年近视和营养状况间的关联, 为近视防控提供理论依据。