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      Reactive oxygen species in plant development

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      Development
      The Company of Biologists

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          Leaf senescence.

          Leaf senescence constitutes the final stage of leaf development and is critical for plants' fitness as nutrient relocation from leaves to reproducing seeds is achieved through this process. Leaf senescence involves a coordinated action at the cellular, tissue, organ, and organism levels under the control of a highly regulated genetic program. Major breakthroughs in the molecular understanding of leaf senescence were achieved through characterization of various senescence mutants and senescence-associated genes, which revealed the nature of regulatory factors and a highly complex molecular regulatory network underlying leaf senescence. The genetically identified regulatory factors include transcription regulators, receptors and signaling components for hormones and stress responses, and regulators of metabolism. Key issues still need to be elucidated, including cellular-level analysis of senescence-associated cell death, the mechanism of coordination among cellular-, organ-, and organism-level senescence, the integration mechanism of various senescence-affecting signals, and the nature and control of leaf age.
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            Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase regulate plant cell growth.

            Cell expansion is a central process in plant morphogenesis, and the elongation of roots and root hairs is essential for uptake of minerals and water from the soil. Ca2+ influx from the extracellular store is required for (and sets the rates of) cell elongation in roots. Arabidopsis thaliana rhd2 mutants are defective in Ca2+ uptake and consequently cell expansion is compromised--rhd2 mutants have short root hairs and stunted roots. To determine the regulation of Ca2+ acquisition in growing root cells we show here that RHD2 is an NADPH oxidase, a protein that transfers electrons from NADPH to an electron acceptor leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that ROS accumulate in growing wild-type (WT) root hairs but their levels are markedly decreased in rhd2 mutants. Blocking the activity of the NADPH oxidase with diphenylene iodonium (DPI) inhibits ROS formation and phenocopies Rhd2-. Treatment of rhd2 roots with ROS partly suppresses the mutant phenotype and stimulates the activity of plasma membrane hyperpolarization-activated Ca2+ channels, the predominant root Ca2+ acquisition system. This indicates that NADPH oxidases control development by making ROS that regulate plant cell expansion through the activation of Ca2+ channels.
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              Glutathione in plants: an integrated overview.

              Plants cannot survive without glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) or γ-glutamylcysteine-containing homologues. The reasons why this small molecule is indispensable are not fully understood, but it can be inferred that glutathione has functions in plant development that cannot be performed by other thiols or antioxidants. The known functions of glutathione include roles in biosynthetic pathways, detoxification, antioxidant biochemistry and redox homeostasis. Glutathione can interact in multiple ways with proteins through thiol-disulphide exchange and related processes. Its strategic position between oxidants such as reactive oxygen species and cellular reductants makes the glutathione system perfectly configured for signalling functions. Recent years have witnessed considerable progress in understanding glutathione synthesis, degradation and transport, particularly in relation to cellular redox homeostasis and related signalling under optimal and stress conditions. Here we outline the key recent advances and discuss how alterations in glutathione status, such as those observed during stress, may participate in signal transduction cascades. The discussion highlights some of the issues surrounding the regulation of glutathione contents, the control of glutathione redox potential, and how the functions of glutathione and other thiols are integrated to fine-tune photorespiratory and respiratory metabolism and to modulate phytohormone signalling pathways through appropriate modification of sensitive protein cysteine residues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Development
                Development
                The Company of Biologists
                0950-1991
                1477-9129
                August 09 2018
                August 01 2018
                August 09 2018
                August 01 2018
                : 145
                : 15
                : dev164376
                Article
                10.1242/dev.164376
                30093413
                0a0416c5-c1dc-42b3-9c8e-d7ccf5190122
                © 2018

                http://www.biologists.com/user-licence-1-1

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