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      Autophagy in health and disease: A comprehensive review.

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          Abstract

          Autophagy, a conserved catabolic process, plays an immensely significant role in a variety of diseases. However, whether it imparts a protective function in diseases remains debatable. During aging, autophagy gradually subsides, manifested by the reduced formation of autophagic vacuoles and improper fusion of these vacuoles with the lysosomes. Similarly, in neurodegenerative disorders, accumulation of tau and synuclein proteins has been attributed to the decline in the autophagic removal of proteins. Equivalently, lysosomal disorders show an impairment of the autophagic process leading to the accumulation of lipid molecules within lysosomes. On the other hand, activation of the autophagic pathway has also proved beneficial in evading various foreign pathogens, thereby contributing to the innate immunity. In the context of cancer, autophagy has shown to play a puzzling role where it serves as a tumor suppressor during initial stages but later protects the tumor cells from the immune system defense mechanisms. Similarly, muscular and heart disorders have been shown to be positively and negatively regulated by autophagy, respectively. In the present review, we, therefore, present a comprehensive review on the role of autophagy in various diseases and their corresponding outcomes.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Biomed. Pharmacother.
          Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
          Elsevier BV
          1950-6007
          0753-3322
          Aug 2018
          : 104
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela 769008, Odisha, India.
          [2 ] Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.
          [3 ] Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela 769008, Odisha, India. Electronic address: sujitb@nitrkl.ac.in.
          Article
          S0753-3322(18)30905-3
          10.1016/j.biopha.2018.05.007
          29800913
          0a0d39ea-c49f-4a7a-ac68-13a6065dc265
          History

          Diseases,Cancer,Aging,Autophagy,Immunity
          Diseases, Cancer, Aging, Autophagy, Immunity

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