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      Durum Wheat Roots Adapt to Salinity Remodeling the Cellular Content of Nitrogen Metabolites and Sucrose

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          Abstract

          Plants are currently experiencing increasing salinity problems due to irrigation with brackish water. Moreover, in fields, roots can grow in soils which show spatial variation in water content and salt concentration, also because of the type of irrigation. Salinity impairs crop growth and productivity by inhibiting many physiological and metabolic processes, in particular nitrate uptake, translocation, and assimilation. Salinity determines an increase of sap osmolality from about 305 mOsmol kg −1 in control roots to about 530 mOsmol kg −1 in roots under salinity. Root cells adapt to salinity by sequestering sodium in the vacuole, as a cheap osmoticum, and showing a rearrangement of few nitrogen-containing metabolites and sucrose in the cytosol, both for osmotic adjustment and oxidative stress protection, thus providing plant viability even at low nitrate levels. Mainly glycine betaine and sucrose at low nitrate concentration, and glycine betaine, asparagine and proline at high nitrate levels can be assumed responsible for the osmotic adjustment of the cytosol, the assimilation of the excess of ammonium and the scavenging of ROS under salinity. High nitrate plants with half of the root system under salinity accumulate proline and glutamine in both control and salt stressed split roots, revealing that osmotic adjustment is not a regional effect in plants. The expression level and enzymatic activities of asparagine synthetase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, as well as other enzymatic activities of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, are analyzed.

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          Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance

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            Potassium transport and plant salt tolerance.

            Salinity is a major abiotic stress affecting approximately 7% of the world's total land area resulting in billion dollar losses in crop production around the globe. Recent progress in molecular genetics and plant electrophysiology suggests that the ability of a plant to maintain a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio appears to be critical to plant salt tolerance. So far, the major efforts of plant breeders have been aimed at improving this ratio by minimizing Na+ uptake and transport to shoot. In this paper, we discuss an alternative approach, reviewing the molecular and ionic mechanisms contributing to potassium homeostasis in salinized plant tissues and discussing prospects for breeding for salt tolerance by targeting this trait. Major K+ transporters and their functional expression under saline conditions are reviewed and the multiple modes of their control are evaluated, including ameliorative effects of compatible solutes, polyamines and supplemental calcium. Subsequently, the genetic aspects of inheritance of K+ transport 'markers' are discussed in the general context of salt tolerance as a polygenic trait. The molecular identity of 'salt tolerance' genes is analysed, and prospects for future research and breeding are examined.
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              The use of metabolomics to dissect plant responses to abiotic stresses

              Plant metabolism is perturbed by various abiotic stresses. As such the metabolic network of plants must be reconfigured under stress conditions in order to allow both the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and the production of compounds that ameliorate the stress. The recent development and adoption of metabolomics and systems biology approaches enable us not only to gain a comprehensive overview, but also a detailed analysis of crucial components of the plant metabolic response to abiotic stresses. In this review we introduce the analytical methods used for plant metabolomics and describe their use in studies related to the metabolic response to water, temperature, light, nutrient limitation, ion and oxidative stresses. Both similarity and specificity of the metabolic responses against diverse abiotic stress are evaluated using data available in the literature. Classically discussed stress compounds such as proline, γ-amino butyrate and polyamines are reviewed, and the widespread importance of branched chain amino acid metabolism under stress condition is discussed. Finally, where possible, mechanistic insights into metabolic regulatory processes are discussed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00018-012-1091-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                09 January 2017
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1Department of Metabolic Networks, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology Potsdam, Germany
                2Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli” Caserta, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Janin Riedelsberger, University of Talca, Chile

                Reviewed by: Sergey Shabala, University of Tasmania, Australia; Anna Maria Mastrangelo, Centro di Ricerca per l'Orticoltura (CRA), Italy

                *Correspondence: Petronia Carillo petronia.carillo@ 123456unina2.it

                This article was submitted to Plant Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2016.02035
                5220018
                Copyright © 2017 Annunziata, Ciarmiello, Woodrow, Maximova, Fuggi and Carillo.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 104, Pages: 16, Words: 13196
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

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