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      Impacts of coexisting bronchial asthma on severe exacerbations in mild-to-moderate COPD: results from a national database

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          Abstract

          Background

          Acute exacerbations are major drivers of COPD deterioration. However, limited data are available for the prevalence of severe exacerbations and impact of asthma on severe exacerbations, especially in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD.

          Methods

          Patients with mild-to-moderate COPD (≥40 years) were extracted from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2007–2012) and were linked to the national health insurance reimbursement database to obtain medical service utilization records.

          Results

          Of the 2,397 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD, 111 (4.6%) had severe exacerbations over the 6 years (0.012/person-year). Severe exacerbations were more frequent in the COPD patients with concomitant self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma compared with only COPD patients ( P<0.001). A multiple logistic regression presented that asthma was an independent risk factor of severe exacerbations in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD regardless of adjustment for all possible confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.002–2.77, P=0.049). In addition, age, female, poor lung function, use of inhalers, and low EuroQoL five dimensions questionnaire index values were independently associated with severe exacerbation in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD.

          Conclusion

          In this population-based study, the prevalence of severe exacerbations in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD was relatively low, compared with previous clinical interventional studies. Coexisting asthma significantly impacted the frequency of severe exacerbations in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD, suggesting application of an exacerbation preventive strategy in these patients.

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          Most cited references 24

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          The clinical features of the overlap between COPD and asthma

          Background The coexistence of COPD and asthma is widely recognized but has not been well described. This study characterizes clinical features, spirometry, and chest CT scans of smoking subjects with both COPD and asthma. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing subjects with COPD and asthma to subjects with COPD alone in the COPDGene Study. Results 119 (13%) of 915 subjects with COPD reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These subjects were younger (61.3 vs 64.7 years old, p = 0.0001) with lower lifetime smoking intensity (43.7 vs 55.1 pack years, p = 0.0001). More African-Americans reported a history of asthma (33.6% vs 15.6%, p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated worse disease-related quality of life, were more likely to have had a severe COPD exacerbation in the past year, and were more likely to experience frequent exacerbations (OR 3.55 [2.19, 5.75], p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated greater gas-trapping on chest CT. There were no differences in spirometry or CT measurements of emphysema or airway wall thickness. Conclusion Subjects with COPD and asthma represent a relevant clinical population, with worse health-related quality of life. They experience more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations despite younger age and reduced lifetime smoking history. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608764
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            Increased risk of exacerbation and hospitalization in subjects with an overlap phenotype: COPD-asthma.

            Several COPD phenotypes have been described; the COPD-asthma overlap is one of the most recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of three subgroups (asthma, COPD, and COPD-asthma overlap) in the Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease (PLATINO) study population, to describe their main characteristics, and to determine the association of the COPD-asthma overlap group with exacerbations, hospitalizations, limitations due to physical health, and perception of general health status (GHS). The PLATINO study is a multicenter population-based survey carried out in five Latin American cities. Outcomes were self-reported exacerbations (defined by deterioration of breathing symptoms that affected usual daily activities or caused missed work), hospitalizations due to exacerbations, physical health limitations, and patients' perception of their GHS obtained by questionnaire. Subjects were classified in three specific groups: COPD--a postbronchodilator (post-BD) FEV₁/FVC ratio of < 0.70; asthma--presence of wheezing in the last year and a minimum post-BD increase in FEV₁ or FVC of 12% and 200 mL; and overlap COPD-asthma--the combination of the two. Out of 5,044 subjects, 767 were classified as having COPD (12%), asthma (1.7%), and COPD-asthma overlap (1.8%). Subjects with COPD-asthma overlap had more respiratory symptoms, had worse lung function, used more respiratory medication, had more hospitalization and exacerbations, and had worse GHS. After adjusting for confounders, the COPD-asthma overlap was associated with higher risks for exacerbations (prevalence ratio [PR], 2.11; 95% CI, 1.08-4.12), hospitalizations (PR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.45-11.67), and worse GHS (PR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85) compared with those with COPD. The coexisting COPD-asthma phenotype is possibly associated with increased disease severity.
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              Efficacy of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate by GOLD stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: analysis from the randomised, placebo-controlled TORCH study

              Background The efficacy of inhaled salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate (SFC) in patients with severe or very severe COPD is well documented. However, there are only limited data about the influence of GOLD severity staging on the effectiveness of SFC, particularly in patients with milder disease. Methods TORCH was a 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6112 patients with moderate/severe COPD with pre-bronchodilator FEV1 < 60% predicted (mean age 65 years, 76% male, mean 44% predicted FEV1, 43% current smokers). To understand the relative efficacy of SFC and its components by GOLD stages, we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the TORCH dataset using baseline post-bronchodilator FEV1 to segment patients into three groups: moderate COPD (GOLD stage II and above: ≥ 50%; n = 2156), severe COPD (GOLD stage III: 30% to < 50%; n = 3019) and very severe COPD (GOLD stage IV: < 30%; n = 937). Results Compared with placebo, SFC improved post-bronchodilator FEV1: 101 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71, 132) in GOLD stage II, 82 ml (95% CI: 60, 104) in GOLD stage III and 96 ml (95% CI: 54, 138) in GOLD stage IV patients, and reduced the rate of exacerbations: 31% (95% CI: 19, 40) in GOLD stage II, 26% (95% CI: 17, 34) in GOLD stage III and 14% (95% CI: -4, 29) in GOLD stage IV. SFC improved health status to a greater extent than other treatments regardless of baseline GOLD stage. Similarly, SFC reduced the risk of death by 33% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.98) for GOLD stage II, 5% (HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.24) for GOLD stage III, and 30% (HR 0.70; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.05) for GOLD stage IV. The rates of adverse events were similar across treatment arms and increased with disease severity. Overall, there was a higher incidence of pneumonia in the fluticasone propionate and SFC arms, compared with other treatments in all GOLD stages. Conclusion In the TORCH study, SFC reduced moderate-to-severe exacerbations and improved health status and FEV1 across GOLD stages. Treatment with SFC may be associated with reduced mortality compared with placebo in patients with GOLD stage II disease. The effects were similar to those reported for the study as a whole. Thus, SFC is an effective treatment option for patients with GOLD stage II COPD. Trial registration Clinicaltrial.gov registration NCT00268216; Study number: SCO30003
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2016
                15 April 2016
                : 11
                : 775-783
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
                [2 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                [3 ]Division of Allergy, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
                [4 ]Pharmaceutical Policy Evaluation Research Team, Research Institution, Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Seoul, South Korea
                [5 ]Big Data Division, Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Seoul, South Korea
                [6 ]Division of Chronic Disease Control, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong, South Korea
                [7 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
                [8 ]Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chungju Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Chungju City, South Korea
                [9 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Medical Center, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, South Korea
                [10 ]Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                [11 ]Academic Primary Care, Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
                [12 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hye Yun Park, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06351, South Korea, Tel +82 2 3410 3429, Fax +82 2 3410 3849, Email hyeyunpark@ 123456skku.edu
                Kwang Ha Yoo, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 120-1 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05030, South Korea, Tel +82 2 2030 7173, Fax +82 2 2030 5009, Email khyou@ 123456kuh.ac.kr
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                copd-11-775
                10.2147/COPD.S95954
                4841438
                27143869
                © 2016 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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