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      How should severity be determined for the DSM-5 proposed classification of Hypersexual Disorder?

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims

          The concept of severity among providers working with hypersexual behavior is frequently used despite a lack of consensus about how severity should be operationalized. The paucity of dialogue about severity for hypersexual behavior is disconcerting given its relevance in determining level of care, risk, allocation of resources, and measuring treatment outcomes in clinical practice and research trials. The aim of the current article is to highlight several considerations for assessing severity based on the proposed DSM-5 criteria for hypersexual disorder.

          Methods

          A review of current conceptualizations for severity among substance-use disorders and gambling disorder in the DSM-5 were considered and challenged as lacking applicability or clinical utility for hypersexual behavior.

          Results and conclusions

          The current research in the field of hypersexual behavior is in its infancy. No concrete approach currently exists to assess severity in hypersexual populations. Several factors in operationalizing severity are discussed and alternative approaches to defining severity are offered for readers to consider.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Hypersexual disorder: a proposed diagnosis for DSM-V.

           M Kafka (2010)
          Hypersexual Disorder is proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for consideration in the Sexual Disorders section for DSM-V. Historical precedents describing hypersexual behaviors as well as the antecedent representations and proposals for inclusion of such a condition in the previous DSM manuals are reviewed. Epidemiological as well as clinical evidence is presented suggesting that non-paraphilic "excesses" of sexual behavior (i.e., hypersexual behaviors and disorders) can be accompanied by both clinically significant personal distress and social and medical morbidity. The research literature describing comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and a purported relationship between Axis I disorders and Hypersexual Disorder is discussed. Based on an extensive review of the literature, Hypersexual Disorder is conceptualized as primarily a nonparaphilic sexual desire disorder with an impulsivity component. Specific polythetic diagnostic criteria, as well as behavioral specifiers, are proposed, intended to integrate empirically based contributions from various putative pathophysiological perspectives, including dysregulation of sexual arousal and desire, sexual impulsivity, sexual addiction, and sexual compulsivity.
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            Age at drinking onset and alcohol dependence: age at onset, duration, and severity.

            To examine whether starting to drink at an early age is associated with developing alcohol dependence at a younger age and chronic relapsing dependence, controlling for respondent demographics, smoking and illicit drug use, childhood antisocial behavior and depression, and family alcoholism history. Cross-sectional survey. Nationwide face-to-face survey with a multistage probability sample. A total of 43,093 adults were surveyed in 2001-2002. Based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria, lifetime alcohol dependence, dependence within 10 years of starting drinking, multiple episodes, an alcohol dependence episode in the past year, episodes exceeding 1 year, and meeting 6 or 7 dependence criteria. Relative to respondents who began drinking at 21 years or older, those who began drinking before age 14 years were more likely to experience alcohol dependence ever and within 10 years of first drinking (adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.78 [1.51-2.11] and 1.69 [1.38-2.07], respectively). They also more often experienced past-year dependence and multiple dependence episodes (adjusted odds ratios, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.40-2.64] and 3.09 [95% CI, 2.19-4.35], respectively). Among alcohol-dependent persons, the odds were 2.62 (95% CI, 1.79-3.84) for having at least 1 episode exceeding 1 year and 2.89 (95% CI, 1.97-4.23) for meeting 6 or 7 dependence diagnostic criteria. There is a need to screen and counsel adolescents about alcohol use and to implement policies and programs that delay alcohol consumption.
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              Report of findings in a DSM-5 field trial for hypersexual disorder.

              Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for hypersexual disorder (HD) have been proposed to capture symptoms reported by patients seeking help for out-of-control sexual behavior. The proposed criteria created by the DSM-5 Work Group on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders require evaluation in a formal field trial. This DSM-5 Field Trial was designed to assess the reliability and validity of the criteria for HD in a sample of patients seeking treatment for hypersexual behavior, a general psychiatric condition, or a substance-related disorder. Patients (N = 207) were assessed for psychopathology and HD by blinded raters to determine inter-rater reliability of the HD criteria and following a 2-week interval by a third rater to evaluate the stability of the HD criteria over time. Patients also completed a number of self-report measures to assess the validity of the HD criteria. HD and psychopathology were measured by structured diagnostic interviews, the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, Sexual Compulsivity Scale, and Hypersexual Behavior Consequences Scale. Emotional dysregulation and stress proneness were measured by facets on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. Inter-rater reliability was high and the HD criteria showed good stability over time. Sensitivity and specificity indices showed that the criteria for HD accurately reflected the presenting problem among patients. The diagnostic criteria for HD showed good validity with theoretically related measures of hypersexuality, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, and stress proneness, as well as good internal consistency. Patients assessed for HD also reported a vast array of consequences for hypersexual behavior that were significantly greater than those diagnosed with a general psychiatric condition or substance-related disorder. The HD criteria proposed by the DSM-5 Work Group on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders appear to demonstrate high reliability and validity when applied to patients in a clinical setting among a group of raters with modest training on assessing HD. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                December 2015
                21 December 2015
                : 4
                : 4
                : 221-225
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Psychiatry, University of California , Los Angeles, CA, USA and Global Clinical Scholars Research Training Program, Harvard University , Boston, MA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding address: Dr. Rory C. Reid; University of California, Los Angeles, 760 Westwood Boulevard, Suite 38-153, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA; Phone: +1-310-825-8050; E-mail: rreid@ 123456mednet.ucla.edu
                Article
                10.1556/2006.4.2015.041
                4712755
                26690616
                © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funding sources: The author is a full-time salaried employee of the University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA.
                Categories
                Review Article

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