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      Polymorphism of Immunomodulatory Cytokine Genes: Implications in Acute Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Experimental studies have incriminated cytokines and other immunoregulatory molecules as important mediators of tissue injury in acute renal failure (ARF). The relative importance of genetic factors, e.g. polymorphisms involving cytokine genes, in influencing susceptibility to and severity of ARF is unknown. This review summarizes the existing experimental and clinical studies supporting the role of inflammation in ARF, and critically examines human studies that have examined polymorphism of two critical cytokine genes, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10, as potential determinants of susceptibility to and severity of acute infectious and inflammatory diseases. Conclusions are drawn on the application of genetic epidemiology to the field of ARF and the rationale for further research on the role of genetic markers in ARF.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Interleukin 10(IL-10) inhibits cytokine synthesis by human monocytes: an autoregulatory role of IL-10 produced by monocytes

           B Bennett,  R Malefyt,  la De (1991)
          In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were able to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), previously designated cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), in a dose dependent fashion. IL-10 was detectable 7 h after activation of the monocytes and maximal levels of IL-10 production were observed after 24-48 h. These kinetics indicated that the production of IL-10 by human monocytes was relatively late as compared to the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which were all secreted at high levels 4-8 h after activation. The production of IL-10 by LPS activated monocytes was, similar to that of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and G-CSF, inhibited by IL-4. Furthermore we demonstrate here that IL-10, added to monocytes, activated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), LPS, or combinations of LPS and IFN-gamma at the onset of the cultures, strongly inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF at the transcriptional level. Viral-IL-10, which has similar biological activities on human cells, also inhibited the production of TNF alpha and GM-CSF by monocytes following LPS activation. Activation of monocytes by LPS in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies resulted in the production of higher amounts of cytokines relative to LPS treatment alone, indicating that endogenously produced IL-10 inhibited the production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha, GM-CSF, and G-CSF. In addition, IL-10 had autoregulatory effects since it strongly inhibited IL-10 mRNA synthesis in LPS activated monocytes. Furthermore, endogenously produced IL-10 was found to be responsible for the reduction in class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression following activation of monocytes with LPS. Taken together our results indicate that IL-10 has important regulatory effects on immunological and inflammatory responses because of its capacity to downregulate class II MHC expression and to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes.
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            Hospital-acquired renal insufficiency: a prospective study.

            Twenty-two hundred sixty-two consecutive medical and surgical admissions were evaluated prospectively to determine the contribution of iatrogenic factors to the development of renal insufficiency in hospital. Of 2,216 patients at risk, some degree of renal insufficiency developed in 4.9 percent. Decreased renal perfusion, postoperative renal insufficiency, radiographic contrast media, and aminoglycosides accounted for 79 percent of the episodes. Iatrogenic factors, broadly defined, accounted for 55 percent of all episodes. Poor prognostic indicators included oliguria, urine sediment abnormalities and, most importantly, severity of renal insufficiency; with an increase in serum creatinine of 3 mg/dl or greater, the mortality rate was 64 percent. Age, admission serum creatinine levels, and the number of episodes of renal insufficiency did not significantly affect outcome. We conclude that there is a substantial risk of the development of renal failure in hospital and that the mortality rate due to hospital-acquired renal insufficiency remains high.
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              Thalidomide exerts its inhibitory action on tumor necrosis factor alpha by enhancing mRNA degradation

              We have examined the mechanism of thalidomide inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha) production and found that the drug enhances the degradation of TNF-alpha mRNA. Thus, the half-life of the molecule was reduced from approximately 30 to approximately 17 min in the presence of 50 micrograms/ml of thalidomide. Inhibition of TNF-alpha production was selective, as other LPS-induced monocyte cytokines were unaffected. Pentoxifylline and dexamethasone, two other inhibitors of TNF-alpha production, are known to exert their effects by means of different mechanisms, suggesting that the three agents inhibit TNF-alpha synthesis at distinct points of the cytokine biosynthetic pathway. These observations provide an explanation for the synergistic effects of these drugs. The selective inhibition of TNF-alpha production makes thalidomide an ideal candidate for the treatment of inflammatory conditions where TNF-alpha-induced toxicities are observed and where immunity must remain intact.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7683-3
                978-3-318-01049-7
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2004
                July 2004
                20 January 2004
                : 22
                : 1
                : 101-111
                Affiliations
                Dialysis Research Laboratory, Division of Nephrology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass., USA
                Article
                74930 Blood Purif 2004;22:101–111
                10.1159/000074930
                14732818
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 123, Pages: 11
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/74930
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