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      Exercise as a Mean to Control Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation

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      , *
      Mediators of Inflammation
      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs), which include cardiovascular disease, some cancers, for example, colon cancer, breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes, are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. It has now become clear that low-grade chronic inflammation is a key player in the pathogenesis of most CNCDs. Given that regular exercise offers protection against all causes of mortality, primarily by protection against atherosclerosis and insulin resistance, we suggest that exercise may exert some of its beneficial health effects by inducing anti-inflammatory actions. Recently, IL-6 was introduced as the first myokine, defined as a cytokine, which is produced and released by contracting skeletal muscle fibres, exerting its effects in other organs of the body. We suggest that skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ and that myokines may be involved in mediating the beneficial effects against CNCDs associated with low-grade inflammation.

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          Most cited references71

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          Inflammation: the link between insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes.

          Recent data have revealed that the plasma concentration of inflammatory mediators, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), is increased in the insulin resistant states of obesity and type 2 diabetes, raising questions about the mechanisms underlying inflammation in these two conditions. It is also intriguing that an increase in inflammatory mediators or indices predicts the future development of obesity and diabetes. Two mechanisms might be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Firstly, glucose and macronutrient intake causes oxidative stress and inflammatory changes. Chronic overnutrition (obesity) might thus be a proinflammatory state with oxidative stress. Secondly, the increased concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-6, associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, might interfere with insulin action by suppressing insulin signal transduction. This might interfere with the anti-inflammatory effect of insulin, which in turn might promote inflammation.
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            Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease.

            Considerable knowledge has accumulated in recent decades concerning the significance of physical activity in the treatment of a number of diseases, including diseases that do not primarily manifest as disorders of the locomotive apparatus. In this review we present the evidence for prescribing exercise therapy in the treatment of metabolic syndrome-related disorders (insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity), heart and pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, intermittent claudication), muscle, bone and joint diseases (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome) and cancer, depression, asthma and type 1 diabetes. For each disease, we review the effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis, on symptoms specific to the diagnosis, on physical fitness or strength and on quality of life. The possible mechanisms of action are briefly examined and the principles for prescribing exercise therapy are discussed, focusing on the type and amount of exercise and possible contraindications.
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              Interleukin-6-deficient mice develop mature-onset obesity.

              The immune-modulating cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is expressed both in adipose tissue and centrally in hypothalamic nuclei that regulate body composition. We investigated the impact of loss of IL-6 on body composition in mice lacking the gene encoding IL-6 (Il6-/- mice) and found that they developed mature-onset obesity that was partly reversed by IL-6 replacement. The obese Il6-/- mice had disturbed carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, increased leptin levels and decreased responsiveness to leptin treatment. To investigate the possible mechanism and site of action of the anti-obesity effect of IL-6, we injected rats centrally and peripherally with IL-6 at low doses. Intracerebroventricular, but not intraperitoneal IL-6 treatment increased energy expenditure. In conclusion, centrally acting IL-6 exerts anti-obesity effects in rodents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mediators Inflamm
                MI
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                0962-9351
                1466-1861
                2008
                11 January 2009
                : 2008
                Affiliations
                The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism (CIM), Department of Infectious Diseases and CMRC, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author notes
                *Bente Klarlund Pedersen: bkp@ 123456rh.dk

                Recommended by Eric Morand

                Article
                10.1155/2008/109502
                2615833
                19148295
                0a20b794-5de2-4d66-9722-1740e30bd494
                Copyright © 2008 N. Mathur and B. K. Pedersen.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Immunology
                Immunology

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