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      Genome and Transcriptome Analyses Provide Insight into the Euryhaline Adaptation Mechanism of Crassostrea gigas

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          The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, has developed special mechanisms to regulate its osmotic balance to adapt to fluctuations of salinities in coastal zones. To understand the oyster’s euryhaline adaptation, we analyzed salt stress effectors metabolism pathways under different salinities (salt 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40 for 7 days) using transcriptome data, physiology experiment and quantitative real-time PCR.


          Transcriptome data uncovered 189, 480, 207 and 80 marker genes for monitoring physiology status of oysters and the environment conditions. Three known salt stress effectors (involving ion channels, aquaporins and free amino acids) were examined. The analysis of ion channels and aquaporins indicated that 7 days long-term salt stress inhibited voltage-gated Na +/K + channel and aquaporin but increased calcium-activated K + channel and Ca 2+ channel . As the most important category of osmotic stress effector, we analyzed the oyster FAAs metabolism pathways (including taurine, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, proline and arginine) and explained FAAs functional mechanism for oyster low salinity adaptation. FAAs metabolism key enzyme genes displayed expression differentiation in low salinity adapted individuals comparing with control which further indicated that FAAs played important roles for oyster salinity adaptation. A global metabolic pathway analysis (iPath) of oyster expanded genes displayed a co-expansion of FAAs metabolism in C. gigas compared with seven other species, suggesting oyster’s powerful ability regarding FAAs metabolism, allowing it to adapt to fluctuating salinities, which may be one important mechanism underlying euryhaline adaption in oyster. Additionally, using transcriptome data analysis, we uncovered salt stress transduction networks in C. gigas.


          Our results represented oyster salt stress effectors functional mechanisms under salt stress conditions and explained the expansion of FAAs metabolism pathways as the most important effectors for oyster euryhaline adaptation. This study was the first to explain oyster euryhaline adaptation at a genome-wide scale in C. gigas.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Population genomics of human gene expression.

          Genetic variation influences gene expression, and this variation in gene expression can be efficiently mapped to specific genomic regions and variants. Here we have used gene expression profiling of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines of all 270 individuals genotyped in the HapMap Consortium to elucidate the detailed features of genetic variation underlying gene expression variation. We find that gene expression is heritable and that differentiation between populations is in agreement with earlier small-scale studies. A detailed association analysis of over 2.2 million common SNPs per population (5% frequency in HapMap) with gene expression identified at least 1,348 genes with association signals in cis and at least 180 in trans. Replication in at least one independent population was achieved for 37% of cis signals and 15% of trans signals, respectively. Our results strongly support an abundance of cis-regulatory variation in the human genome. Detection of trans effects is limited but suggests that regulatory variation may be the key primary effect contributing to phenotypic variation in humans. We also explore several methodologies that improve the current state of analysis of gene expression variation.
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            The oyster genome reveals stress adaptation and complexity of shell formation.

            The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is highly polymorphic and rich in repetitive sequences, with some transposable elements still actively shaping variation. Transcriptome studies reveal an extensive set of genes responding to environmental stress. The expansion of genes coding for heat shock protein 70 and inhibitors of apoptosis is probably central to the oyster's adaptation to sessile life in the highly stressful intertidal zone. Our analyses also show that shell formation in molluscs is more complex than currently understood and involves extensive participation of cells and their exosomes. The oyster genome sequence fills a void in our understanding of the Lophotrochozoa.
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              Proline: a multifunctional amino acid.

              Proline accumulates in many plant species in response to environmental stress. Although much is now known about proline metabolism, some aspects of its biological functions are still unclear. Here, we discuss the compartmentalization of proline biosynthesis, accumulation and degradation in the cytosol, chloroplast and mitochondria. We also describe the role of proline in cellular homeostasis, including redox balance and energy status. Proline can act as a signaling molecule to modulate mitochondrial functions, influence cell proliferation or cell death and trigger specific gene expression, which can be essential for plant recovery from stress. Although the regulation and function of proline accumulation are not yet completely understood, the engineering of proline metabolism could lead to new opportunities to improve plant tolerance of environmental stresses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                12 March 2013
                : 8
                : 3

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Pages: 14
                This research was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, No. 2010CB126402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40730845), National High Technology Research and Development Program (863 program, No. 2012AA10A405), Mollusk Research and Development Center, CARS, Taishan Scholars Climbing Program of Shandong and Oversea Taishan Scholar Program of Shandon. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Oyster Farming
                Ion Channels
                Computational Biology
                Genome Analysis Tools
                Genome Analysis Tools
                Genome Databases
                Sequence Databases
                Genome Expression Analysis
                Marine Biology
                Marine Ecology



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