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      Photothermal therapy with regulated Nrf2/NF-κB signaling pathway for treating bacteria-induced periodontitis

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          Abstract

          Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease initiated by bacterial infection, developed by excessive immune response, and aggravated by high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, herein, a versatile metal-organic framework (MOF)-based nanoplatform is prepared using mesoporous Prussian blue (MPB) nanoparticles to load BA, denoted as MPB-BA. The established MPB-BA nanoplatform serves as a shelter and reservoir for vulnerable immunomodulatory drug BA, which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. Thus, MPB-BA can exert its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory functions through scavenging intracellular ROS to switch macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype so as to relieve inflammation. The underlying molecular mechanism lies in the upregulation of phosphorylated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to scavenge ROS and subsequently inhibit the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signal pathway. Moreover, MPB-BA also exhibited efficient photothermal antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. In vivo RNA sequencing results revealed the high involvement of both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways after MPB-BA application. Meanwhile, micro-CT and immunohistochemical staining of p-Nrf2 and p-P65 further confirmed the superior therapeutic effects of MPB-BA than minocycline hydrochloride. This work may provide an insight into the treatment of periodontitis by regulating Nrf2/NF-κB signaling pathway through photothermal bioplatform-assisted immunotherapy.

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          Highlights

          • A baicalein (BA) loaded mesoporous Prussian blue (MPB) nanoplatform is prepared.

          • MPB-BA nanoplatform exerted antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects.

          • MPB-BA scavenged ROS and switched macrophages to M2 phenotype to relieve inflammation.

          • MPB-BA treated periodontitis via photothermal bioplatform-assisted immunotherapy.

          • The Nrf2/NF-κB pathway was regulated for treating bacteria-induced periodontitis.

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          Most cited references69

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          Origin and physiological roles of inflammation.

          Inflammation underlies a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. Although the pathological aspects of many types of inflammation are well appreciated, their physiological functions are mostly unknown. The classic instigators of inflammation - infection and tissue injury - are at one end of a large range of adverse conditions that induce inflammation, and they trigger the recruitment of leukocytes and plasma proteins to the affected tissue site. Tissue stress or malfunction similarly induces an adaptive response, which is referred to here as para-inflammation. This response relies mainly on tissue-resident macrophages and is intermediate between the basal homeostatic state and a classic inflammatory response. Para-inflammation is probably responsible for the chronic inflammatory conditions that are associated with modern human diseases.
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            Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation.

            Macrophages display remarkable plasticity and can change their physiology in response to environmental cues. These changes can give rise to different populations of cells with distinct functions. In this Review we suggest a new grouping of macrophage populations based on three different homeostatic activities - host defence, wound healing and immune regulation. We propose that similarly to primary colours, these three basic macrophage populations can blend into various other 'shades' of activation. We characterize each population and provide examples of macrophages from specific disease states that have the characteristics of one or more of these populations.
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              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as pleiotropic physiological signalling agents

              'Reactive oxygen species' (ROS) is an umbrella term for an array of derivatives of molecular oxygen that occur as a normal attribute of aerobic life. Elevated formation of the different ROS leads to molecular damage, denoted as 'oxidative distress'. Here we focus on ROS at physiological levels and their central role in redox signalling via different post-translational modifications, denoted as 'oxidative eustress'. Two species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the superoxide anion radical (O2·-), are key redox signalling agents generated under the control of growth factors and cytokines by more than 40 enzymes, prominently including NADPH oxidases and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. At the low physiological levels in the nanomolar range, H2O2 is the major agent signalling through specific protein targets, which engage in metabolic regulation and stress responses to support cellular adaptation to a changing environment and stress. In addition, several other reactive species are involved in redox signalling, for instance nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and oxidized lipids. Recent methodological advances permit the assessment of molecular interactions of specific ROS molecules with specific targets in redox signalling pathways. Accordingly, major advances have occurred in understanding the role of these oxidants in physiology and disease, including the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems, skeletal muscle and metabolic regulation as well as ageing and cancer. In the past, unspecific elimination of ROS by use of low molecular mass antioxidant compounds was not successful in counteracting disease initiation and progression in clinical trials. However, controlling specific ROS-mediated signalling pathways by selective targeting offers a perspective for a future of more refined redox medicine. This includes enzymatic defence systems such as those controlled by the stress-response transcription factors NRF2 and nuclear factor-κB, the role of trace elements such as selenium, the use of redox drugs and the modulation of environmental factors collectively known as the exposome (for example, nutrition, lifestyle and irradiation).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Bioact Mater
                Bioact Mater
                Bioactive Materials
                KeAi Publishing
                2452-199X
                05 August 2021
                March 2022
                05 August 2021
                : 9
                : 428-445
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Dentistry, Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070, People's Republic of China
                [b ]School of Materials Science & Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology by the Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, People's Republic of China
                Author notes
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. yingli@ 123456tmu.edu.cn
                [∗∗∗ ]Corresponding author. lichangyi@ 123456tmu.edu.cn
                Article
                S2452-199X(21)00366-2
                10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.07.033
                8586811
                34820581
                0a223f5d-42d4-49d4-86d3-e54667fdeb0a
                © 2021 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 17 June 2021
                : 29 July 2021
                : 29 July 2021
                Categories
                Article

                periodontitis,prussian blue,photothermal therapy,nrf2/nf-κb signaling pathway,bacterial infection

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