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      Reduction of claustrophobia during magnetic resonance imaging: methods and design of the "CLAUSTRO" randomized controlled trial

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          Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been described as the most important medical innovation in the last 25 years. Over 80 million MR procedures are now performed each year and on average 2.3% (95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 2.5%) of all patients scheduled for MR imaging suffer from claustrophobia. Thus, prevention of MR imaging by claustrophobia is a common problem and approximately 2,000,000 MR procedures worldwide cannot be completed due to this situation. Patients with claustrophobic anxiety are more likely to be frightened and experience a feeling of confinement or being closed in during MR imaging. In these patients, conscious sedation and additional sequences (after sedation) may be necessary to complete the examinations. Further improvements in MR design appear to be essential to alleviate this situation and broaden the applicability of MR imaging. A more open scanner configuration might help reduce claustrophobic reactions while maintaining image quality and diagnostic accuracy.


          We propose to analyze the rate of claustrophobic reactions, clinical utility, image quality, patient acceptance, and cost-effectiveness of an open MR scanner in a randomized comparison with a recently designed short-bore but closed scanner with 97% noise reduction. The primary aim of this study is thus to determine whether an open MR scanner can reduce claustrophobic reactions, thereby enabling more examinations of claustrophobic patients without incurring the safety issues associated with conscious sedation. In this manuscript we detail the methods and design of the prospective "CLAUSTRO" trial.


          This randomized controlled trial will be the first direct comparison of open vertical and closed short-bore MR systems in regards to claustrophobia and image quality as well as diagnostic utility.

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          Most cited references 43

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          EuroQol--a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life.

          In the course of developing a standardised, non-disease-specific instrument for describing and valuing health states (based on the items in Table 1), the EuroQol Group (whose members are listed in the Appendix) conducted postal surveys in England, The Netherlands and Sweden which indicate a striking similarity in the relative valuations attached to 14 different health states. The data were collected using a visual analogue scale similar to a thermometer. The EuroQol instrument is intended to complement other quality-of-life measures and to facilitate the collection of a common data set for reference purposes. Others interested in participating in the extension of this work are invited to contact the EuroQol Group.
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            An Analysis of Coping in a Middle-Aged Community Sample

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              Fatty muscle degeneration in cuff ruptures. Pre- and postoperative evaluation by CT scan.

              A preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan grading muscular fatty degeneration in five stages was done in 63 patients scheduled for repair of a torn rotator cuff. The results were compared with postoperative evaluation done after a mean of 17.7 months in 57 patients. Postoperative arthrographies were also performed in 56 patients. Preoperative CT scans demonstrated that infraspinatus fatty degeneration can occur in the presence of large anterosuperior tears even when the infraspinatus tendon is not torn; it worsens with time. The subscapularis rarely degenerates, and when it does it degenerates moderately, even when its tendon is not torn. After an effective surgical repair, moderate supraspinatus degeneration regressed in six of 14 patients; that of the infraspinatus never regressed but rather, increased, in three patients. One of these deteriorations, involving both supra- and infraspinatus, could probably be attributed to a partial subscapular nerve injury. Infraspinatus degeneration was correlated with functional pre- and postoperative impairment of active external rotation. Recurrence of infraspinatus tear was never observed, but recurrence occurred in 25% of supraspinatus repairs. Infraspinatus degeneration had a highly negative influence on the outcome of supraspinatus repairs. It seems preferable to operate on wide tears before irreversible muscular damage takes place.

                Author and article information

                BMC Med Imaging
                BMC Medical Imaging
                BioMed Central
                10 February 2011
                : 11
                : 4
                [1 ]Departments of Radiology, Charité, Medical School, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin and Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
                [2 ]Departments of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Charité, Medical School, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin and Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
                [3 ]Divisions of Neuroradiology, Charité, Medical School, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin and Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
                [4 ]Departments of Clinical Psychology, Charité, Medical School, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin and Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
                Copyright ©2011 Enders et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Radiology & Imaging


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