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      Role of Microparticles in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Joint Diseases

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          Abstract

          Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) make up a group of chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). The course of these diseases involves chronic inflammation of joints and enthesopathies, which can result in joint damage and disability. Microparticles (MPs) are a group of small spherical membranous vesicles. The structure and cellular origin of MPs, mechanisms that stimulate their secretion and the place of their production, determine their biological properties, which could become manifest in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Microparticles can stimulate synovitis with proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. MPs may also contribute to the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases by the formation of immune complexes and complement activation, pro-coagulation activity, activation of vascular endothelium cells, and stimulation of metalloproteinase production. It seems that in the future, microparticles can become a modern marker of disease activity, a response to treatment, and, possibly, they can be used in the prognosis of the course of arthritis. The knowledge of the complexity of MPs biology remains incomplete and it requires further comprehensive studies to explain how they affect the development of rheumatic diseases. This review focuses on the immunopathogenic and therapeutic role of MPs in chronic immune-mediated inflammatory joint diseases.

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          Most cited references 90

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          Detection of microRNA Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Microvesicles

          Background MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate translation of mRNA and protein. Loss or enhanced expression of miRNAs is associated with several diseases, including cancer. However, the identification of circulating miRNA in healthy donors is not well characterized. Microvesicles, also known as exosomes or microparticles, circulate in the peripheral blood and can stimulate cellular signaling. In this study, we hypothesized that under normal healthy conditions, microvesicles contain miRNAs, contributing to biological homeostasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Microvesicles were isolated from the plasma of normal healthy individuals. RNA was isolated from both the microvesicles and matched mononuclear cells and profiled for 420 known mature miRNAs by real-time PCR. Hierarchical clustering of the data sets indicated significant differences in miRNA expression between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma microvesicles. We observed 71 miRNAs co-expressed between microvesicles and PBMC. Notably, we found 33 and 4 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs in the plasma microvesicles and mononuclear cells, respectively. Prediction of the gene targets and associated biological pathways regulated by the detected miRNAs was performed. The majority of the miRNAs expressed in the microvesicles from the blood were predicted to regulate cellular differentiation of blood cells and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, a select few miRNAs were also predicted to be important modulators of immune function. Conclusions This study is the first to identify and define miRNA expression in circulating plasma microvesicles of normal subjects. The data generated from this study provides a basis for future studies to determine the predictive role of peripheral blood miRNA signatures in human disease and will enable the definition of the biological processes regulated by these miRNA.
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            Platelets amplify inflammation in arthritis via collagen-dependent microparticle production.

            In addition to their pivotal role in thrombosis and wound repair, platelets participate in inflammatory responses. We investigated the role of platelets in the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. We identified platelet microparticles--submicrometer vesicles elaborated by activated platelets--in joint fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis, but not in joint fluid from patients with osteoarthritis. Platelet microparticles were proinflammatory, eliciting cytokine responses from synovial fibroblasts via interleukin-1. Consistent with these findings, depletion of platelets attenuated murine inflammatory arthritis. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we identified the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI as a key trigger for platelet microparticle generation in arthritis pathophysiology. Thus, these findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for platelets and their activation-induced microparticles in inflammatory joint diseases.
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              Circulating microparticles: pathophysiology and clinical implications.

              Microparticles (MP) derived from vascular endothelium or circulating blood cells circulate in the peripheral blood. They originate from blebbing and shedding from cell membrane surfaces in physiological and pathological conditions and are present in low concentrations in normal plasma. Increased levels are generated by a number of mechanisms including platelet activation, direct vascular endothelial damage, thrombin activity on the cell surface, C5b-9 activation, and PF4-heparin-antibody interaction. Several techniques are currently used to study the generation and nature of circulating microparticles. In particular, the genesis and role of microparticles, derived from platelets, endothelial cells and monocytes, in sepsis (especially meningococcal-induced), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), aplastic anaemia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) and sickle cell disease (SCD) have been well studied, and provide important insights into the underlying diseases. A defect in the ability to form microparticles leads to the severe bleeding disorder of Scott syndrome, which in turn provides a revealing insight into the physiology of coagulation. In addition the complex role of microparticles in vascular and cardiovascular diseases is an area of immense interest, that promises to yield important advances into diagnosis and therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                01 November 2019
                November 2019
                : 20
                : 21
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Rheumatology, Municipal Hospital in Olsztyn, 10-900 Olsztyn, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-900 Olsztyn, Poland
                [3 ]Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Clinical Immunology, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-900 Olsztyn, Poland; aganek@ 123456wp.pl
                [4 ]Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Kraków University, 30-705 Kraków, Poland; zbyszekzuber@ 123456interia.pl
                [5 ]Faculty of Earth Sciences, Department of Geomatics and Cartography Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun, Poland; maja.wojtkiewicz@ 123456umk.pl
                [6 ]Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-900 Olsztyn, Poland; joanna.wojtkiewicz@ 123456uwm.edu.pl
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: magdalenakw@ 123456op.pl
                Article
                ijms-20-05453
                10.3390/ijms20215453
                6862866
                31683793
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                joint inflammatory diseases, microparticles

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