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      Magnocellular Vasopressin and the Mechanism of “Glucocorticoid Escape”

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          Abstract

          It is now widely accepted that magnocellular vasopressinergic neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei participate in the control of adrenocorticotropin secretion by the anterior pituitary gland. However, it remains to be explored in further detail, when and how these multifunctional neurons are involved in the control of anterior pituitary function. This paper highlights the role of magnocellular vasopressin in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis with special reference to escape from glucocorticoid feedback inhibition. The signaling mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid escape by pituitary corticotrope cells, as well as the wider physiologic and pathologic contexts in which escape is known to occur—namely strenuous exercise, and autoimmune inflammation will be considered. It is proposed that by inducing escape from glucocorticoid feedback inhibition at the pituitary level, magnocellular vasopressin is critically important for the anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressant actions of endogenous corticosteroids.

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          Most cited references81

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          How Do Glucocorticoids Influence Stress Responses? Integrating Permissive, Suppressive, Stimulatory, and Preparative Actions

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            SCoPE-MS: mass spectrometry of single mammalian cells quantifies proteome heterogeneity during cell differentiation

            Some exciting biological questions require quantifying thousands of proteins in single cells. To achieve this goal, we develop Single Cell ProtEomics by Mass Spectrometry (SCoPE-MS) and validate its ability to identify distinct human cancer cell types based on their proteomes. We use SCoPE-MS to quantify over a thousand proteins in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. The single-cell proteomes enable us to deconstruct cell populations and infer protein abundance relationships. Comparison between single-cell proteomes and transcriptomes indicates coordinated mRNA and protein covariation, yet many genes exhibit functionally concerted and distinct regulatory patterns at the mRNA and the protein level. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13059-018-1547-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Corticosteroid inhibition of ACTH secretion.

              Corticosteroid feedback inhibits the brain-hypothalamo-pituitary units of the adrenocortical system. Naturally occurring corticosteroids may have their primary actions in vivo at brain and hypothalamic sites of feedback, whereas synthetic glucocorticoids that do not bind to transcortin may act primarily on corticotropes and regions of brain outside the blood-brain barrier. There appear to be three major time frames of corticosteroid action: fast, intermediate and slow. These time frames probably are the consequence of three separate mechanisms of corticosteroid action at feedback-sensitive sites. The rapidity of occurrence of fast feedback is not compatible with a nuclear site of corticosteroid action, and protein synthesis is not required. The action of CRF on ACTH release may be inhibited by a rapid effect of corticosteroids at the cell membrane. Since stimulated, but not basal, ACTH and CRF release are inhibited in vitro, the corticosteroids may inhibit some event in stimulus-secretion coupling (e.g., cAMP production). Intermediate feedback also decreases ACTH release in response to stimulation of the corticotrope, but does not affect ACTH synthesis; CRF synthesis and release both appear to be affected by the intermediate corticosteroid action. The mechanism of intermediate feedback requires the presence of a protein whose synthesis is corticosteroid-dependent; however, the role of this protein is unknown. Intermediate feedback, like fast feedback, apparently does not involve inhibition of total ACTH stores or the releasable pool of ACTH since basal secretion of ACTH is also not inhibited in vitro within this time domain. On the other hand, slow feedback apparently involves the classical genomic steroid mechanism of action; slow feedback reduces pituitary ACTH content by decreasing levels of mRNA encoding for POMC, the ACTH precursor molecule. Slow feedback, therefore, inhibits basal as well as stimulus induced ACTH secretion. Corticosteroid-induced inhibition of basal ACTH secretion has been shown to occur within 2 h in vivo but not in vitro. The time course and sensitivity of this feedback effect is different than that demonstrated for stimulus induced secretion. This difference suggests that basal secretion is activated by different pathways to (CRF and) ACTH secretion. There is some evidence that suggests that whereas comparator elements are not reset during stress, a comparator element is reset during the course of the circadian rhythm so that different basal levels of steroid are achieved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                26 June 2019
                2019
                : 10
                : 422
                Affiliations
                Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, Deanery of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: László Hunyady, Semmelweis University, Hungary

                Reviewed by: Hana Zemkova, Institute of Physiology (ASCR), Czechia; Maristela Oliveira Poletini, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil

                *Correspondence: Ferenc A. Antoni ferenc.antoni@ 123456ed.ac.uk

                This article was submitted to Cellular Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2019.00422
                6607413
                31297096
                0a2ba5bd-5c51-4880-9442-2c2276d31fbb
                Copyright © 2019 Antoni.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 15 March 2019
                : 12 June 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 90, Pages: 8, Words: 6519
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Review

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                vasopressin,adrenal corticosteroids,acth,dexamethasone non-suppression,interleukin-6,agonist-induced plasticity

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