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      Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

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          The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads ( Anaxyrus ( Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community.

           K R Lips,  F Brem,  R Brenes (2006)
          Pathogens rarely cause extinctions of host species, and there are few examples of a pathogen changing species richness and diversity of an ecological community by causing local extinctions across a wide range of species. We report the link between the rapid appearance of a pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in an amphibian community at El Copé, Panama, and subsequent mass mortality and loss of amphibian biodiversity across eight families of frogs and salamanders. We describe an outbreak of chytridiomycosis in Panama and argue that this infectious disease has played an important role in amphibian population declines. The high virulence and large number of potential hosts of this emerging infectious disease threaten global amphibian diversity.
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            Spread of Chytridiomycosis Has Caused the Rapid Global Decline and Extinction of Frogs

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              Global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and amphibian chytridiomycosis in space, time, and host.

              Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a chytrid fungus that causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Only named in 1999, Bd is a proximate driver of declines in global amphibian biodiversity. The pathogen infects over 350 species of amphibians and is found on all continents except Antarctica. However, the processes that have led to the global distribution of Bd and the occurrence of chytridiomycosis remain unclear. This review explores the molecular, epidemiological, and ecological evidence that Bd evolved from an endemic ancestral lineage to achieve global prominence via anthropogenically mediated spread. We then consider the major host and pathogen factors that have led to the occurrence of chytridiomycosis in amphibian species, populations, and communities.

                Author and article information

                Microbiol Insights
                Microbiol Insights
                Microbiology Insights
                Libertas Academica
                18 February 2014
                : 7
                : 1-8
                Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, USA.
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                © 2014 the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

                This is an open access article published under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC 3.0 License.

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