A total of 270 Middle Palaeolithic sites are recorded in the Portuguese Archaeology Archive. Of these, only a few have been systematically excavated and shown to present valuable archaeological information or reliable absolute dating evidence. Just 13 sites yielded animal remains. Most of these assemblages, however, are of indeterminate origin or are the result of natural or carnivore accumulations. Only three sites yielded faunal assemblages produced by hominin activity: Gruta Nova da Columbeira, Gruta da Figueira Brava and Gruta da Oliveira. The following research update summarises and contextualises findings from the last two of these caves, which are presently being investigated as part of a funded doctoral research project based at the UCL Institute of Archaeology. As discussed below, the project has already yielded substantial information on Neanderthal subsistence and palaeoenvironment in Portugal.