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      Diagnostic performance of stress myocardial perfusion imaging for coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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          To determine and compare the diagnostic performance of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), using conventional coronary angiography (CCA) as the reference standard.


          We searched Medline and Embase for literature that evaluated stress MPI for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), contrast-enhanced echocardiography (ECHO), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET).


          All pooled analyses were based on random effects models. Articles on MRI yielded a total of 2,970 patients from 28 studies, articles on ECHO yielded a sample size of 795 from 10 studies, articles on SPECT yielded 1,323 from 13 studies. For CAD defined as either at least 50 %, at least 70 % or at least 75 % lumen diameter reduction on CCA, the natural logarithms of the diagnostic odds ratio (lnDOR) for MRI (3.63; 95 % CI 3.26–4.00) was significantly higher compared to that of SPECT (2.76; 95 % CI 2.28–3.25; P = 0.006) and that of ECHO (2.83; 95 % CI 2.29–3.37; P = 0.02). There was no significant difference between the lnDOR of SPECT and ECHO ( P = 0.52).


          Our results suggest that MRI is superior for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD compared with ECHO and SPECT. ECHO and SPECT demonstrated similar diagnostic performance.

          Key Points

          MRI can assess myocardial perfusion.

          MR perfusion diagnoses coronary artery disease better than echocardiography or SPECT.

          Echocardiography and SPECT have similar diagnostic performance.

          MRI can save coronary artery disease patients from more invasive tests.

          MRI and SPECT show evidence of publication bias, implying possible overestimation.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00330-012-2434-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study.

          Prevention and control of disease and injury require information about the leading medical causes of illness and exposures or risk factors. The assessment of the public-health importance of these has been hampered by the lack of common methods to investigate the overall, worldwide burden. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) provides a standardised approach to epidemiological assessment and uses a standard unit, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), to aid comparisons. DALYs for each age-sex group in each GBD region for 107 disorders were calculated, based on the estimates of mortality by cause, incidence, average age of onset, duration, and disability severity. Estimates of the burden and prevalence of exposure in different regions of disorders attributable to malnutrition, poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene, unsafe sex, tobacco use, alcohol, occupation, hypertension, physical inactivity, use of illicit drugs, and air pollution were developed. Developed regions account for 11.6% of the worldwide burden from all causes of death and disability, and account for 90.2% of health expenditure worldwide. Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders explain 43.9%; non-communicable causes 40.9%; injuries 15.1%; malignant neoplasms 5.1%; neuropsychiatric conditions 10.5%; and cardiovascular conditions 9.7% of DALYs worldwide. The ten leading specific causes of global DALYs are, in descending order, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, perinatal disorders, unipolar major depression, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, measles, road-traffic accidents, and congenital anomalies. 15.9% of DALYs worldwide are attributable to childhood malnutrition and 6.8% to poor water, and sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. The three leading contributors to the burden of disease are communicable and perinatal disorders affecting children. The substantial burdens of neuropsychiatric disorders and injuries are under-recognised. The epidemiological transition in terms of DALYs has progressed substantially in China, Latin America and the Caribbean, other Asia and islands, and the middle eastern crescent. If the burdens of disability and death are taken into account, our list differs substantially from other lists of the leading causes of death. DALYs provide a common metric to aid meaningful comparison of the burden of risk factors, diseases, and injuries.
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            Estimating risk of cancer associated with radiation exposure from 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

            Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has become a common diagnostic test, yet there are little data on its associated cancer risk. The recent Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII Phase 2 report provides a framework for estimating lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence associated with radiation exposure from a CTCA study, using the most current data available on health effects of radiation. To determine the LAR of cancer incidence associated with radiation exposure from a 64-slice CTCA study and to evaluate the influence of age, sex, and scan protocol on cancer risk. Organ doses from 64-slice CTCA to standardized phantom (computational model) male and female patients were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods, using standard spiral CT protocols. Age- and sex-specific LARs of individual cancers were estimated using the approach of BEIR VII and summed to obtain whole-body LARs. Whole-body and organ LARs of cancer incidence. Organ doses ranged from 42 to 91 mSv for the lungs and 50 to 80 mSv for the female breast. Lifetime cancer risk estimates for standard cardiac scans varied from 1 in 143 for a 20-year-old woman to 1 in 3261 for an 80-year-old man. Use of simulated electrocardiographically controlled tube current modulation (ECTCM) decreased these risk estimates to 1 in 219 and 1 in 5017, respectively. Estimated cancer risks using ECTCM for a 60-year-old woman and a 60-year-old man were 1 in 715 and 1 in 1911, respectively. A combined scan of the heart and aorta had higher LARs, up to 1 in 114 for a 20-year-old woman. The highest organ LARs were for lung cancer and, in younger women, breast cancer. These estimates derived from our simulation models suggest that use of 64-slice CTCA is associated with a nonnegligible LAR of cancer. This risk varies markedly and is considerably greater for women, younger patients, and for combined cardiac and aortic scans.
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                Author and article information

                Eur Radiol
                Eur Radiol
                European Radiology
                Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                19 April 2012
                19 April 2012
                September 2012
                : 22
                : 9
                : 1881-1895
                [1 ]Departments of Epidemiology and Radiology, Erasmus MC – University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [4 ]Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, USA
                © The Author(s) 2012
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                © European Society of Radiology 2012


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