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      An In silico Approach to Identify High Affinity Small Molecule Targeting m-TOR Inhibitors for the Clinical Treatment of Breast Cancer

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          Abstract

          Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women. It is a heterogeneous disease with different subtypes defined by its hormone receptor. A hormone receptor is mainly concerned with the progression of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway which is often dysregulated in breast cancer. This is a major signaling pathway that controls the activities such as cell growth, cell division, and cell proliferation. The present study aims to suppress mTOR protein by its various inhibitors and to select one with the highest binding affinity to the receptor protein. Out of 40 inhibitors of mTOR against breast cancer, SF1126 was identified to have the best docking score of -8.705, using Schrodinger Suite which was further subjected for high throughput screening to obtain best similar compound using Lipinski’s filters. The compound obtained after virtual screening, ID: ZINC85569445 is seen to have the highest affinity with the target protein mTOR. The same result based on the binding free energy analysis using MM-GBSA showed that the compound ZINC85569445 to have the the highest binding free energy. The next study of interaction between the ligand and receptor protein with the pharmacophore mapping showed the best conjugates, and the ZINC85569445 can be further studied for future benefits of treatment of breast cancer.

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          Most cited references 95

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          Global cancer statistics, 2012.

          Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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            Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells.

            Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in United States women, accounting for >40,000 deaths each year. These breast tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of breast cancer cells. Using a model in which human breast cancer cells were grown in immunocompromised mice, we found that only a minority of breast cancer cells had the ability to form new tumors. We were able to distinguish the tumorigenic (tumor initiating) from the nontumorigenic cancer cells based on cell surface marker expression. We prospectively identified and isolated the tumorigenic cells as CD44(+)CD24(-/low)Lineage(-) in eight of nine patients. As few as 100 cells with this phenotype were able to form tumors in mice, whereas tens of thousands of cells with alternate phenotypes failed to form tumors. The tumorigenic subpopulation could be serially passaged: each time cells within this population generated new tumors containing additional CD44(+)CD24(-/low)Lineage(-) tumorigenic cells as well as the phenotypically diverse mixed populations of nontumorigenic cells present in the initial tumor. The ability to prospectively identify tumorigenic cancer cells will facilitate the elucidation of pathways that regulate their growth and survival. Furthermore, because these cells drive tumor development, strategies designed to target this population may lead to more effective therapies.
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              Development and Testing of the OPLS All-Atom Force Field on Conformational Energetics and Properties of Organic Liquids

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
                Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev
                APJCP
                Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP
                West Asia Organization for Cancer Prevention (Iran )
                1513-7368
                2476-762X
                2019
                : 20
                : 4
                : 1229-1241
                Affiliations
                [1 ] In silico Research Laboratory, Eminent Biosciences, Madhya Pradesh,
                [4 ] Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, LeGene Biosciences Pvt Ltd., Indore,
                [2 ] Computer Aided Drug Designing and Molecular Modeling Lab, Department of Bioinformatics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu,
                [3 ] Department of Biotechnology, Lovely Faculty of Technology and Sciences, Division of Research and Development, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.
                Author notes
                [* ]For Correspondence: anuraj@eminentbio.com, skysanjeev@gmail.com
                10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.4.1229
                6948900
                31030499

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research Article

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