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      Hollow nanoparticles as emerging electrocatalysts for renewable energy conversion reactions

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          Hollow structured nanocatalysts show a great potential as next generation electrocatalysts for future renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies.


          While the realization of clean and sustainable energy conversion systems primarily requires the development of highly efficient catalysts, one of the main issues had been designing the structure of the catalysts to fulfill minimum cost as well as maximum performance. Until now, noble metal-based nanocatalysts had shown outstanding performances toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the scarcity and high cost of them impeded their practical use. Recently, hollow nanostructures including nanocages and nanoframes had emerged as a burgeoning class of promising electrocatalysts. The hollow nanostructures could expose a high proportion of active surfaces while saving the amounts of expensive noble metals. In this review, we introduced recent advances in the synthetic methodologies for generating noble metal-based hollow nanostructures based on thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. We summarized electrocatalytic applications of hollow nanostructures toward the ORR, OER, and HER. We next provided strategies that could endow structural robustness to the flimsy structural nature of hollow structures. Finally, we concluded this review with perspectives to facilitate the development of hollow nanostructure-based catalysts for energy applications.

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          Pd-Pt bimetallic nanodendrites with high activity for oxygen reduction.

          Controlling the morphology of Pt nanostructures can provide a great opportunity to improve their catalytic properties and increase their activity on a mass basis. We synthesized Pd-Pt bimetallic nanodendrites consisting of a dense array of Pt branches on a Pd core by reducing K2PtCl4 with L-ascorbic acid in the presence of uniform Pd nanocrystal seeds in an aqueous solution. The Pt branches supported on faceted Pd nanocrystals exhibited relatively large surface areas and particularly active facets toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the rate-determining step in a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The Pd-Pt nanodendrites were two and a half times more active on the basis of equivalent Pt mass for the ORR than the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst and five times more active than the first-generation supportless Pt-black catalyst.
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            Lattice-strain control of the activity in dealloyed core-shell fuel cell catalysts.

            Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. We demonstrate the core-shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity-strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.
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              Core/shell nanoparticles: classes, properties, synthesis mechanisms, characterization, and applications.


                Author and article information

                Chemical Society Reviews
                Chem. Soc. Rev.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                November 12 2018
                : 47
                : 22
                : 8173-8202
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry
                [2 ]Korea University
                [3 ]Seoul 02841
                [4 ]Republic of Korea
                [5 ]Center for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics
                [6 ]School of Energy and Chemical Engineering
                [7 ]Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST)
                [8 ]Ulsan 44919
                © 2018




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