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      Alectinib and Brigatinib: New Second-Generation ALK Inhibitors for the Treatment of Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

      , PharmD, , PharmD

      Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology

      Harborside Press

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          Abstract

          The treatment of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been revolutionized by the discovery of genetic driver mutations and associated targeted therapies. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) mutations are present in about 5% of NSCLC cases, and treatment with the first-generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib has shown better progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate compared to traditional chemotherapy. However, eventually, ALK-mutated NSCLC develops resistance to treatment with crizotinib, and second-generation ALK inhibitors such as ceritinib, brigatinib, and alectinib have been shown to be effective in the second-line setting after progression on crizotinib. In the second-line setting, alectinib showed an objective response rate (ORR) of 45% and PFS of 8 to 12 months. Brigatinib showed an ORR of 45% to 54% with a PFS of 9.2 to 12.9 months in the second-line setting. A more recent trial compared alectinib to crizotinib in the treatment-naive setting and showed a significant PFS benefit to treatment with alectinib. The second-generation ALK inihibitors brigatinib and alectinib offer new options for the treatment of ALK mutation–positive NSCLC.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Alectinib in Crizotinib-Refractory ALK-Rearranged Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase II Global Study.

          Crizotinib confers improved progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but progression invariably occurs. We investigated the efficacy and safety of alectinib, a potent and selective ALK inhibitor with excellent CNS penetration, in patients with crizotinib-refractory ALK-positive NSCLC.
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            Safety and activity of alectinib against systemic disease and brain metastases in patients with crizotinib-resistant ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (AF-002JG): results from the dose-finding portion of a phase 1/2 study.

            Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and ALK rearrangements generally have a progression-free survival of 8-11 months while on treatment with the ALK inhibitor crizotinib. However, resistance inevitably develops, with the brain a common site of progression. More potent ALK inhibitors with consistently demonstrable CNS activity and good tolerability are needed urgently. Alectinib is a novel, highly selective, and potent ALK inhibitor that has shown clinical activity in patients with crizotinib-naive ALK-rearranged NSCLC. We did a phase 1/2 study of alectinib to establish the recommended phase 2 dose of the drug and examine its activity in patients resistant or intolerant to crizotinib.
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              CH5424802 (RO5424802) for patients with ALK-rearranged advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (AF-001JP study): a single-arm, open-label, phase 1-2 study.

              Currently, crizotinib is the only drug that has been approved for treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to study the activity and safety of CH5424802, a potent, selective, and orally available ALK inhibitor. In this multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase 1-2 study of CH5424802, we recruited ALK inhibitor-naive patients with ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC from 13 hospitals in Japan. In the phase 1 portion of the study, patients received CH5424802 orally twice daily by dose escalation. The primary endpoints of the phase 1 were dose limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and pharmacokinetic parameters. In the phase 2 portion of the study, patients received CH5424802 at the recommended dose identified in the phase 1 portion of the study orally twice a day. The primary endpoint of the phase 2 was the proportion of patients who had an objective response. Treatment was continued in 21-day cycles until disease progression, intolerable adverse events, or withdrawal of consent. The analysis was done by intent to treat. This study is registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center, number JapicCTI-101264. Patients were enrolled between Sept 10, 2010, and April 18, 2012. The data cutoff date was July 31, 2012. In the phase 1 portion, 24 patients were treated at doses of 20-300 mg twice daily. No DLTs or adverse events of grade 4 were noted up to the highest dose; thus 300 mg twice daily was the recommended phase 2 dose. In the phase 2 portion of the study, 46 patients were treated with the recommended dose, of whom 43 achieved an objective response (93.5%, 95% CI 82.1-98.6) including two complete responses (4.3%, 0.5-14.8) and 41 partial responses (89.1%, 76.4-96.4). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 were recorded in 12 (26%) of 46 patients, including two patients each experiencing decreased neutrophil count and increased blood creatine phosphokinase. Serious adverse events occurred in five patients (11%). No grade 4 adverse events or deaths were reported. The study is still ongoing, since 40 of the 46 patients in the phase 2 portion remain on treatment. CH5424802 is well tolerated and highly active in patients with advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Adv Pract Oncol
                J Adv Pract Oncol
                JADPRO
                Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
                Harborside Press
                2150-0878
                2150-0886
                Jan-Feb 2018
                1 January 2018
                : 9
                : 1
                : 94-101
                Affiliations
                Emory Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia; and Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia
                Author notes

                Correspondence to: Tyler Beardslee, PharmD, Emory Healthcare, 1365 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30322. E-mail: tyler.beardslee@emoryhealthcare.org

                Article
                jadpro.v09.i01.pg94
                6296421
                Copyright © 2018, Harborside Press

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is for non-commercial purposes.

                Categories
                Review Article
                Oncology

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