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          GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 165 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in the UK and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps to ensure worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at

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          Most cited references 10

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          dbEST--database for "expressed sequence tags".

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            CDD: a Conserved Domain Database for protein classification

            The Conserved Domain Database (CDD) is the protein classification component of NCBI's Entrez query and retrieval system. CDD is linked to other Entrez databases such as Proteins, Taxonomy and PubMed®, and can be accessed at CD-Search, which is available at, is a fast, interactive tool to identify conserved domains in new protein sequences. CD-Search results for protein sequences in Entrez are pre-computed to provide links between proteins and domain models, and computational annotation visible upon request. Protein–protein queries submitted to NCBI's BLAST search service at are scanned for the presence of conserved domains by default. While CDD started out as essentially a mirror of publicly available domain alignment collections, such as SMART, Pfam and COG, we have continued an effort to update, and in some cases replace these models with domain hierarchies curated at the NCBI. Here, we report on the progress of the curation effort and associated improvements in the functionality of the CDD information retrieval system.
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              Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

              In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data retrieval systems and computational resources for the analysis of data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's website. NCBI resources include Entrez, Entrez Programming Utilities, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, SAGEmap, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD) and the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART). Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at

                Author and article information

                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                1 January 2005
                17 December 2004
                : 33
                : Database Issue
                : D34-D38
                Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Building 38A, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
                Author notes

                To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +1 301 435 5950; Fax: +1 301 480 9241; Email: wheeler@


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                © 2005, the authors

                Copyright © 2005 Oxford University Press



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