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      Gastrointestinal Disease in Guinea Pigs and Rabbits

      , DVM, MS a , , DVM, DABVP (Avian/Exotic Companion Mammal), DACZM a , b ,

      The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice

      Elsevier Inc.

      Gastrointestinal disease, Rabbit, Guinea pig, Stasis, Enteritis, GDV, Liver torsion

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          Abstract

          This article reviews diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal diseases in guinea pigs and rabbits. The review includes established causes of gastrointestinal disease in these species. The authors highlight syndromes that may be considered emerging or less-recognized causes of gastrointestinal stasis, including gastric dilation and volvulus in guinea pigs and lead toxicity, colonic entrapment, and liver torsion in rabbits. Practitioners should recommend initial diagnostics, including radiographs and blood work on guinea pigs and rabbits presenting with nonspecific signs of gastrointestinal stasis, to better determine possible cause and make the best treatment recommendations.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic rabbits.

          We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (RbCoV HKU14), from domestic rabbits. The virus was detected in 11 (8.1%) of 136 rabbit fecal samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), with a viral load of up to 10(8) copies/ml. RbCoV HKU14 was able to replicate in HRT-18G and RK13 cells with cytopathic effects. Northern blotting confirmed the production of subgenomic mRNAs coding for the HE, S, NS5a, E, M, and N proteins. Subgenomic mRNA analysis revealed a transcription regulatory sequence, 5'-UCUAAAC-3'. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCoV HKU14 formed a distinct branch among Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, being most closely related to but separate from the species Betacoronavirus 1. A comparison of the conserved replicase domains showed that RbCoV HKU14 possessed <90% amino acid identities to most members of Betacoronavirus 1 in ADP-ribose 1″-phosphatase (ADRP) and nidoviral uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (NendoU), indicating that RbCoV HKU14 should represent a separate species. RbCoV HKU14 also possessed genomic features distinct from those of other Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, including a unique NS2a region with a variable number of small open reading frames (ORFs). Recombination analysis revealed possible recombination events during the evolution of RbCoV HKU14 and members of Betacoronavirus 1, which may have occurred during cross-species transmission. Molecular clock analysis using RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes dated the most recent common ancestor of RbCoV HKU14 to around 2002, suggesting that this virus has emerged relatively recently. Antibody against RbCoV was detected in 20 (67%) of 30 rabbit sera tested by an N-protein-based Western blot assay, whereas neutralizing antibody was detected in 1 of these 20 rabbits.
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            Proliferative enteropathy.

             G Lawson,  C Gebhart (2015)
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              Is Open Access

              Mathematical modelling and evaluation of the different routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus

              Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a severe viral disease of cattle. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the virus is transmitted mechanically by blood-feeding arthropods. We compared the importance of transmission via direct and indirect contact in field conditions by using mathematical tools. We analyzed a dataset collected during the LSD outbreak in 2006 in a large dairy herd, which included ten separated cattle groups. Outbreak dynamics and risk factors for LSD were assessed by a transmission model. Transmission by three contact modes was modelled; indirect contact between the groups within a herd, direct contact or contact via common drinking water within the groups and transmission by contact during milking procedure. Indirect transmission was the only parameter that could solely explain the entire outbreak dynamics and was estimated to have an overall effect that was over 5 times larger than all other possible routes of transmission, combined. The R 0 value induced by indirect transmission per the presence of an infectious cow for 1 day in the herd was 15.7, while the R 0 induced by direct transmission was 0.36. Sensitivity analysis showed that this result is robust to a wide range of assumptions regarding mean and standard deviation of incubation period and regarding the existence of sub-clinically infected cattle. These results indicate that LSD virus spread within the affected herd could hardly be attributed to direct contact between cattle or contact through the milking procedure. It is therefore concluded that transmission mostly occurs by indirect contact, probably by flying, blood-sucking insects. This has important implications for control of LSD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
                Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
                The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
                Elsevier Inc.
                1094-9194
                1558-4232
                8 February 2013
                May 2013
                8 February 2013
                : 16
                : 2
                : 421-435
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Zoological Companion Animal Medicine, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA
                [b ]Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 Northeast Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Zoological Companion Animal Medicine, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA. Jennifer.Graham@ 123456Tufts.edu
                Article
                S1094-9194(13)00003-0
                10.1016/j.cvex.2013.01.002
                7128126
                23642870
                Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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