Abstract The genus Biston Leach, 1815 is reviewed for China. Seventeen species are recognized, of which Biston mediolata sp. n. is described. Biston pustulata (Warren, 1896) and Biston panterinaria exanthemata (Moore, 1888) are newly recorded for China. The following new synonyms are established: Biston suppressaria suppressaria (Guenée, 1858) (= Biston suppressaria benescripta (Prout, 1915), syn. n. = Biston luculentus Inoue, 1992 syn. n.); Biston falcata (Warren, 1893) (= Amphidasis erilda Oberthür, 1910, syn. n. = Amphidasis clorinda Oberthür, 1910, syn. n. = Biston emarginaria Leech, 1897, syn. n.); Biston panterinaria panterinaria (Bremer & Grey, 1853) (= Biston panterinaria abraxata (Leech, 1889), syn. n. = Biston panterinaria lienpingensis (Wehrli, 1939), syn. n. = B. panterinaria szechuanensis (Wehrli, 1939), syn. n.). Biston falcata satura (Wehrli,1941), comb. n. is proposed. A key to Chinese Biston and diagnoses for Chinese species are provided. Illustrations of external features and genitalia are presented.