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      Natural History Of an Untreated Type 1 Endoleak: A Case Report

      1 , , 1 , 1 , 2

      ,

      Cureus

      Cureus

      endovascular aneurysm repair (evar), endoleak, abdominal aortic aneurysm (aaa)

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          We present a case of giant abdominal aortic aneurysm greater than 17 cm complicated by an endoleak, demonstrating the natural history of an untreated Type 1 endoleak.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Endovascular aneurysm repair versus open repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (EVAR trial 1): randomised controlled trial.

            (2015)
          Although endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has a lower 30-day operative mortality than open repair, the long-term results of EVAR are uncertain. We instigated EVAR trial 1 to compare these two treatments in terms of mortality, durability, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and costs for patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We did a randomised controlled trial of 1082 patients aged 60 years or older who had aneurysms of at least 5.5 cm in diameter and who had been referred to one of 34 hospitals proficient in the EVAR technique. We assigned patients who were anatomically suitable for EVAR and fit for an open repair to EVAR (n=543) or open repair (n=539). Our primary endpoint was all-cause mortality, with secondary endpoints of aneurysm related mortality, HRQL, postoperative complications, and hospital costs. Analyses were by intention to treat. 94% (1017 of 1082) of patients complied with their allocated treatment and 209 died by the end of follow-up on Dec 31, 2004 (53 of aneurysm-related causes). 4 years after randomisation, all-cause mortality was similar in the two groups (about 28%; hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.69-1.18, p=0.46), although there was a persistent reduction in aneurysm-related deaths in the EVAR group (4%vs 7%; 0.55, 0.31-0.96, p=0.04). The proportion of patients with postoperative complications within 4 years of randomisation was 41% in the EVAR group and 9% in the open repair group (4.9, 3.5-6.8, p<0.0001). After 12 months there was negligible difference in HRQL between the two groups. The mean hospital costs per patient up to 4 years were UK pound sterling 13,257 for the EVAR group versus pound sterling 9946 for the open repair group (mean difference pound sterling 3311, SE 690). Compared with open repair, EVAR offers no advantage with respect to all-cause mortality and HRQL, is more expensive, and leads to a greater number of complications and reinterventions. However, it does result in a 3% better aneurysm-related survival. The continuing need for interventions mandates ongoing surveillance and longer follow-up of EVAR for detailed cost-effectiveness assessment.
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            Outcomes following endovascular vs open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a randomized trial.

            Limited data are available to assess whether endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) improves short-term outcomes compared with traditional open repair. To compare postoperative outcomes up to 2 years after endovascular or open repair of AAA in a planned interim report of a 9-year trial. A randomized, multicenter clinical trial of 881 veterans (aged > or = 49 years) from 42 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers with eligible AAA who were candidates for both elective endovascular repair and open repair of AAA. The trial is ongoing and this report describes the period between October 15, 2002, and October 15, 2008. Elective endovascular (n = 444) or open (n = 437) repair of AAA. Procedure failure, secondary therapeutic procedures, length of stay, quality of life, erectile dysfunction, major morbidity, and mortality. Mean follow-up was 1.8 years. Perioperative mortality (30 days or inpatient) was lower for endovascular repair (0.5% vs 3.0%; P = .004), but there was no significant difference in mortality at 2 years (7.0% vs 9.8%, P = .13). Patients in the endovascular repair group had reduced median procedure time (2.9 vs 3.7 hours), blood loss (200 vs 1000 mL), transfusion requirement (0 vs 1.0 units), duration of mechanical ventilation (3.6 vs 5.0 hours), hospital stay (3 vs 7 days), and intensive care unit stay (1 vs 4 days), but required substantial exposure to fluoroscopy and contrast. There were no differences between the 2 groups in major morbidity, procedure failure, secondary therapeutic procedures, aneurysm-related hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, or erectile function. In this report of short-term outcomes after elective AAA repair, perioperative mortality was low for both procedures and lower for endovascular than open repair. The early advantage of endovascular repair was not offset by increased morbidity or mortality in the first 2 years after repair. Longer-term outcome data are needed to fully assess the relative merits of the 2 procedures. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00094575.
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              Epidemiology and potential for prevention of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

               A B Wilmink,  C Quick (1998)
              Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common cause of death which is preventable by elective repair of an asymptomatic AAA. The literature was reviewed with emphasis on epidemiological studies and population-based screening surveys. The prevalence of small AAA ranges between 3 and 8 per cent. The incidence of asymptomatic AAA seems to be increasing, although exact incidence estimates vary. The most important risk factors for AAA are male sex, age, family history and smoking. Hypertension is associated with a mildly increased risk, but diabetes is not associated with any increase. Primary prevention of AAA is not a realistic option. There is no evidence of an effective medical treatment to prevent growth of small AAAs, although trials with propranolol are under way. The only intervention to prevent death from aneurysm is elective repair of the asymptomatic lesion. Screening for asymptomatic AAA can reduce the incidence of rupture. However, further studies are needed to determine the cost effectiveness of screening compared with that of other health programmes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                24 July 2017
                July 2017
                : 9
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ] General Surgery, Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packer Hospital
                [2 ] Vascular Surgery, Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packer Hospital
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.1507
                5608480
                Copyright © 2017, Shen et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Medical Education
                Cardiac/Thoracic/Vascular Surgery
                Family/General Practice
                Medical Education

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