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      To be or not to be a synonym – revision of the Donaciaclavareaui- fukiensis complex (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae)

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          The East Palaearctic species Donacia clavareaui Jacobson, 1906 and Donacia fukiensis Goecke, 1944 have been confused for decades. Finally, D. fukiensis was synonymized with D. clavareaui by Askevold (1990) but he could not examine the type series of D. fukiensis because it was stored in an inaccessible collection. Cong and Yu (1997) re-established D. fukiensis as a distinct species, also without direct access to the type series. The synonymization by Askevold (1990) was applied in the identification key of Palaearctic Chrysomelidae ( Warchalowski 2010) and the Catalogue of Palaearctic Chrysomelidae ( Silfverberg 2010). Because the type series of D. fukiensis is now accessible, it has been possible to proof that D. fukiensis is a distinct species, and a lectotype has been established from the series of seven syntypes. Donacia kweilina Chen, 1966 and D. mediohirsuta Chen, 1966, which were split from the mixture of D. clavareaui and D. fukiensis , are now also synonymized with D. clavareaui , because their characters are the same or within the variation range of the characters of D. clavareaui. Furthermore, a distribution map is provided with the reliable records known to date.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Molecular phylogeny of reed beetles (Col., Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae): the signature of ecological specialization and geographical isolation.

          The Donaciinae consist of approximately 165 species predominantly occurring in the northern hemisphere. We analysed mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (COI, EF-1alpha) of 46 species to investigate their phylogeny and to discuss general topics in the context of insect herbivory (generalists versus specialists, ecological speciation). Phylogenetic reconstructions from various methodical approaches yielded very similar results. Clades corresponding to the traditional tribes/genera were recovered. Within the genus Donacia, species groups with characteristic host plant preference were identified. Estimated divergence times are discussed on the background of geological events. The origin of the Donaciinae is dated to 75-100 million years before present, after which they quickly diversified into the main groups. An initial split of those groups occurred in the Palaeocene. In the Eocene and Oligocene, major lineages specialized on certain host plants, where they radiated in the Miocene. This radiation was enforced by geographic isolation brought about by the final separation of America and Europe, after which there arose continental lineages within three larger species groups. In their evolution based on ecological specialization with a recently superimposed geographic isolation, the Donaciinae follow a pattern of specialists arising from generalists. Host plant shifts show that such a specialization is not necessarily an 'evolutionary dead-end'.
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            Adopting Bacteria in Order to Adapt to Water—How Reed Beetles Colonized the Wetlands (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae)

            The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous. They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots. The larvae pupate there in a water-tight cocoon, which they build using a secretion that is produced by symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are located in four blind sacs at the foregut of the larvae; in (female) adults they colonize two out of the six Malpighian tubules. Tetracycline treatment of larvae reduced their pupation rate, although the bacteria could not be fully eliminated. When the small amount of bacterial mass attached to eggs was experimentally removed before hatching, symbiont free larvae resulted, showing the external transmission of the bacteria to the offspring. Specific primers were designed to detect the bacteria, and to confirm their absence in manipulated larvae. The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation).
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              Reconstructed phylogeny and reclassification of the genera of Donaciinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048d35-bb1d-5ce8-9668-537e44bd4c7e
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2019
                17 June 2019
                : 856
                : 27-50
                Affiliations
                [1 ] St.-Julien-Strasse 2/314, 5020 Salzburg, Austria Unaffiliated Salzburg Austria
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Elisabeth Geiser ( elisabeth.geiser@ 123456gmx.at )

                Academic editor: M. Schmitt

                Article
                32388 urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:497e8a14-d7b0-56f2-9d2c-8e2ff3d77912 urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:779E3481-B7AD-40C8-A5F4-AAD52DAD60ED
                10.3897/zookeys.856.32388
                6591214
                Elisabeth Geiser

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Arthropoda
                Chrysomelidae
                Chrysomeloidea
                Coleoptera
                Hexapoda
                Insecta
                Invertebrata
                Polyphaga
                Faunistics & Distribution
                Identification key
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Asia
                Asian Russia
                Central Asia
                China
                Far East
                Japan
                Mongolia

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