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      Low temperature plasma biomedicine: A tutorial review

      Physics of Plasmas
      AIP Publishing

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          Cold plasma selectivity and the possibility of a paradigm shift in cancer therapy

          Background: Plasma is an ionised gas that is typically generated in high-temperature laboratory conditions. However, recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Methods: Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. Results: We show that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells; and (b) significantly reduces tumour size in vivo. It is shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. Conclusion: The development of cold plasma tumour ablation has the potential of shifting the current paradigm of cancer treatment and enabling the transformation of cancer treatment technologies by utilisation of another state of matter.
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            ROS implication in a new antitumor strategy based on non-thermal plasma.

            Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is generated by ionizing neutral gas molecules/atoms leading to a highly reactive gas at ambient temperature containing excited molecules, reactive species and generating transient electric fields. Given its potential to interact with tissue or cells without a significant temperature increase, NTP appears as a promising approach for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interest of NTP both in vitro and in vivo. To this end, we evaluated the antitumor activity of NTP in vitro on two human cancer cell lines (glioblastoma U87MG and colorectal carcinoma HCT-116). Our data showed that NTP generated a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the formation of DNA damages. This resulted in a multiphase cell cycle arrest and a subsequent apoptosis induction. In addition, in vivo experiments on U87MG bearing mice showed that NTP induced a reduction of bioluminescence and tumor volume as compared to nontreated mice. An induction of apoptosis was also observed together with an accumulation of cells in S phase of the cell cycle suggesting an arrest of tumor proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrated here that the potential of NTP to generate ROS renders this strategy particularly promising in the context of tumor treatment. Copyright © 2011 UICC.
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              Antimicrobial strategies centered around reactive oxygen species--bactericidal antibiotics, photodynamic therapy, and beyond.

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can attack a diverse range of targets to exert antimicrobial activity, which accounts for their versatility in mediating host defense against a broad range of pathogens. Most ROS are formed by the partial reduction in molecular oxygen. Four major ROS are recognized comprising superoxide (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and singlet oxygen ((1)O2), but they display very different kinetics and levels of activity. The effects of O2•- and H2O2 are less acute than those of •OH and (1)O2, because the former are much less reactive and can be detoxified by endogenous antioxidants (both enzymatic and nonenzymatic) that are induced by oxidative stress. In contrast, no enzyme can detoxify •OH or (1)O2, making them extremely toxic and acutely lethal. The present review will highlight the various methods of ROS formation and their mechanism of action. Antioxidant defenses against ROS in microbial cells and the use of ROS by antimicrobial host defense systems are covered. Antimicrobial approaches primarily utilizing ROS comprise both bactericidal antibiotics and nonpharmacological methods such as photodynamic therapy, titanium dioxide photocatalysis, cold plasma, and medicinal honey. A brief final section covers reactive nitrogen species and related therapeutics, such as acidified nitrite and nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Physics of Plasmas
                Physics of Plasmas
                AIP Publishing
                1070-664X
                1089-7674
                August 2014
                August 2014
                : 21
                : 8
                : 080901
                Article
                10.1063/1.4892534
                0a81f54c-6fcd-4942-ae6d-6b2f8cb0fec7
                © 2014
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4892534

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