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      Redness Enhances Perceived Aggression, Dominance and Attractiveness in Men's Faces

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      Evolutionary Psychology

      SAGE Publications

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          Most cited references 58

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          Abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in patients with essential hypertension.

          Endothelium regulates vascular tone by influencing the contractile activity of vascular smooth muscle. This regulatory effect of the endothelium on blood vessels has been shown to be impaired in atherosclerotic arteries in humans and animals and in animal models of hypertension. To determine whether patients with essential hypertension have an endothelium-dependent abnormality in vascular relaxation, we studied the response of the forearm vasculature to acetylcholine (an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and sodium nitroprusside (a direct dilator of smooth muscle) in 18 hypertensive patients (mean age [+/- SD], 50.7 +/- 10 years; 10 men and 8 women) two weeks after the withdrawal of antihypertensive medications and in 18 normal controls (mean age, 49.9 +/- 9; 9 men and 9 women). The drugs were infused at increasing concentrations into the brachial artery, and the response in forearm blood flow was measured by strain-gauge plethysmography. The basal forearm blood flow was similar in the patients and controls (mean +/- SD, 3.4 +/- 1.3 and 3.7 +/- 0.8 ml per minute per 100 ml of forearm tissue, respectively; P not significant). The responses of blood flow and vascular resistance to acetylcholine were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients (P less than 0.0001); maximal forearm flow was 9.1 +/- 5 ml per minute per 100 ml in the patients and 20.0 +/- 8 ml per minute per 100 ml in the controls (P less than 0.0002). However, there were no significant differences between groups in the responses of blood flow and vascular resistance to sodium nitroprusside. Because the vasodilator effect of acetylcholine might also be due to presynaptic inhibition of the release of norepinephrine by adrenergic nerve terminals, the effect of acetylcholine was assessed during phentolamine-induced alpha-adrenergic blockade. Under these conditions, it was also evident that the responses to acetylcholine were significantly blunted in the hypertensive patients (P less than 0.03). Endothelium-mediated vasodilation is impaired in patients with essential hypertension. This defect may play an important part in the functional abnormalities of resistance vessels that are observed in hypertensive patients.
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            Menstrual cycle alters face preference.

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              Skin blood flow in adult human thermoregulation: how it works, when it does not, and why.

              The thermoregulatory control of human skin blood flow is vital to the maintenance of normal body temperatures during challenges to thermal homeostasis. Sympathetic neural control of skin blood flow includes the noradrenergic vasoconstrictor system and a sympathetic active vasodilator system, the latter of which is responsible for 80% to 90% of the substantial cutaneous vasodilation that occurs with whole body heat stress. With body heating, the magnitude of skin vasodilation is striking: skin blood flow can reach 6 to 8 L/min during hyperthermia. Cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems also participate in baroreflex control of blood pressure; this is particularly important during heat stress, when such a large percentage of cardiac output is directed to the skin. Local thermal control of cutaneous blood vessels also contributes importantly--local warming of the skin can cause maximal vasodilation in healthy humans and includes roles for both local sensory nerves and nitric oxide. Local cooling of the skin can decrease skin blood flow to minimal levels. During menopause, changes in reproductive hormone levels substantially alter thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. This altered control might contribute to the occurrence of hot flashes. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the ability of skin blood vessels to dilate is impaired. This impaired vasodilation likely contributes to the increased risk of heat illness in this patient population during exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Raynaud phenomenon and erythromelalgia represent cutaneous microvascular disorders whose pathophysiology appears to relate to disorders of local and/or reflex thermoregulatory control of the skin circulation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evolutionary Psychology
                Evol Psychol
                SAGE Publications
                1474-7049
                1474-7049
                July 2012
                July 2012
                : 10
                : 3
                : 147470491201000
                Article
                10.1177/147470491201000312
                © 2012

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