Objective The association of self-efficacy, habit strength, goal intention and outcome expectation with the consumption of snack in senior primary school students were investigated, providing evidence for the application of psychosocial determinants based on Social Cognitive Theory in children’s nutrition education.
Methods A total of 1 353 students, 10–12 years old, participated in this study. Participants completed questionnaires for assessing self-efficacy, habit strength, goal intention, outcome expectation and snack consumption in January 2020.
Results Average times of snack consumption among primary school students were 5.0 (3.0, 8.5) times per week, and the snack intake were 4.0 (0.9, 22.9) g/d. The outcome expectation score was −1.0 (−2.0, −1.0) points, while the score of children’s snack-related self-efficacy was (4.3±0.9) points, habit strength score 1.0 (1.0, 3.0) points, and the goal intention (4.2±1.2) points. Students with higher snack intake showed lower scores in outcome expectation, self-efficacy and goal intention ( t= −9.0, 6.8, 5.2, P<0.01). Logistic regression showed negative association between outcome expectation and self-efficacy factors with snacking behavior ( OR = 0.7, 0.8, respectively), as well as positive association between habit strength and snacking behaviors ( OR =1.3, P<0.05).
Conclusion The evidence indicated that self-efficacy, habit strength, goal intention and outcome expectation are associated with child’s snack consumption, and can be used as theoretical foundation for child snack consumption education.
【摘要】 目的 探究自我效能、习惯强度、目标意向和结果预期与高年级小学生零食摄入行为的关系, 为以社会认知理论 为主的社会心理决定因素在儿童营养教育中的应用提供参考。 方法 于 2020 年 1 月, 采用方便抽样的方式通过问卷调查 方法评价北京市丰台区和西城区 2 所小学四至六年级 1 353 名学生的自我效能、习惯强度、目标意向、结果预期评分, 并调 查零食摄入行为, 分析二者的关联。 结果 小学生每周零食摄入次数为 5.0 (3.0, 8.5) 次, 每日摄入量为 4.0 (0.9, 22.9) g; 零 食相关的结果预期评分为 −1.0 (−2.0, −1.0) 分, 自我效能评分为 (4.3±0.9) 分, 习惯强度评分为 1.0 (1.0, 3.0) 分, 目标意向评 分为 (4.2±1.2) 分; 与零食摄入次数较低的学生相比, 零食摄入次数较高的小学生, 其结果预期、自我效能和目标意向评分 均较低 ( t 值分别为 −9.0, 6.8, 5.2, P 值均<0.01)。Logistic 回归分析结果显示, 结果预期和自我效能与儿童零食摄入行为呈 负相关 ( OR 值分别为 0.7, 0.8), 习惯强度与儿童零食摄入行为呈正相关 ( OR =1.3) ( P 值均<0.05)。 结论 自我效能、习惯 强度、目标意向和结果预期与儿童零食摄入行为相关, 可以作为儿童营养干预的理论基础。