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      Boosted Tidal Disruption by Massive Black Hole Binaries During Galaxy Mergers - In The View of N-Body Simulation

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          Abstract

          Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are productions of the hierarchical galaxy formation model. There are many close connections between central SMBH and its host galaxy because the former plays very important roles on the formation and evolution of a galaxy. For this reason, the evolution of SMBHBs in merging galaxies is an essential problem. Since there are many discussions about SMBHB evolution in gas rich environment, we focus on the quiescent galaxy, using tidal disruption as a diagnostic tool. Our study is based on a series of numerical large particle number direct N-body simulations for dry major mergers. According to the simulation results, the evolution can be divided into three phases. In phase I, the tidal disruption rate for two well separated SMBHs in merging system has similar level to single SMBH in isolate galaxy. After two SMBHs getting close enough to form a bound binary in phase II, the disruption rate can be enhanced for ~ 2 order of magnitudes within a short time. This "boosted" disruption stage finishes after the SMBHB evolving to compact binary system in phase III, corresponding to a drop back of disruption rate to a level of a few times higher than that in Phase I. How to correctly extrapolate our N-body simulation results to reality, and implications of our results to observations, are discussed too.

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          Tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes: Status of observations

           S. Komossa (2015)
          Stars in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) can be ripped apart by the tidal forces of the black hole. The subsequent accretion of the stellar material causes a spectacular flare of electromagnetic radiation. Here, we provide a review of the observations of tidal disruption events (TDEs), with an emphasis on the important contributions of Swift to this field. TDEs represent a new probe of matter under strong gravity, and have opened up a new window into studying accretion physics under extreme conditions. The events probe relativistic effects, provide a new means of measuring black hole spin, and represent signposts of intermediate-mass BHs, binary BHs and recoiling BHs. Luminous, high-amplitude X-ray flares, matching key predictions of the tidal disruption scenario, have first been discovered with ROSAT, and more recently with other missions and in other wavebands. The Swift discovery of two gamma-ray emitting, jetted TDEs, never seen before, has provided us with a unique probe of the early phases of jet formation and evolution, and SwiftJ1644+75 has the best covered lightcurve of any TDE to date. Further, Swift has made important contributions in providing well-covered lightcurves of TDEs discovered with other instruments, setting constraints on the physics that govern the TDE evolution, and including the discovery of the first candidate binary SMBH identified from a TDE lightcurve.
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            Stellar dynamics and tidal disruption events in galactic nuclei

             Tal Alexander (2012)
            The disruption of a star by the tidal field of a massive black hole is the final outcome of a chain of complex dynamical processes in the host galaxy. I introduce the "loss cone problem", and describe the many theoretical and numerical challenges on the path of solving it. I review various dynamical channels by which stars can be supplied to a massive black hole, and the relevant dynamical relaxation / randomization mechanisms. I briefly mention some "exotic" tidal disruption scenarios, and conclude by discussing some new dynamical results that are changing our understanding of dynamics near a massive black hole, and may well be relevant for tidal disruption dynamics.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              1509.00158

              Galaxy astrophysics

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