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      The Effects of Natural Iridoids and Anthocyanins on Selected Parameters of Liver and Cardiovascular System Functions

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          Abstract

          The old adage says, “you are what you eat.” And although it is a banality repeated by many with a grain of salt, it also has quite a bit of truth in it, as the products we eat have a considerable impact on our health. Unfortunately, humanity is eating worse from one year to another, both in terms of product quality and eating habits. At the same time, it is brought up frequently that plant products should form the basis of our diet. This issue was also reflected in the new version of the food pyramid. Iridoids and anthocyanins are groups of plant compounds with proven beneficial effects on health. Both groups affect the cardiovascular system and the liver functions. Although many mechanisms of action and the therapeutic effects of these compounds have already been learned, intensive animal and clinical research is still underway to explore their new curative mechanisms and effects or to broaden our knowledge of those previously described. In this article, we review the effects of natural iridoids and anthocyanins on selected parameters of liver and cardiovascular system functions.

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          Most cited references 83

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          2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts) Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR).

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            The anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside, a flavonoid, increases hepatic glutathione synthesis and protects hepatocytes against reactive oxygen species during hyperglycemia: Involvement of a cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathway.

            Enhanced oxidative stress due to high glucose contributes to pathological changes in diabetes-related liver complications. Reducing oxidative stress may alleviate these pathogenic processes. Anthocyanin, a natural antioxidant, has been reported to reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels but the mechanism of this reduction is not fully understood. The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system is critical for counteracting oxidative stress-induced intracellular injury. In this study, we evaluated the mechanism of the anthocyanin-mediated regulation of GSH synthesis and reduction in intracellular ROS levels. We observed that treatment of human HepG2 cells with the anthocyanin C3G significantly reduced ROS levels induced by high glucose. C3G incubation increased glutamate-cysteine ligase expression, which in turn mediated the reduction in ROS levels. However, the upregulation of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) expression by C3G occurred independent of the Nrf1/2 transcription factors. Notably, the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) was identified as the target transcription factor involved in the C3G-mediated upregulation of Gclc expression. C3G increased phosphorylation of CREB through protein kinase A (PKA) activation, which induced a CREB-mediated upregulation of Gclc transcription. In vivo, treatment with C3G increased the GSH synthesis in the liver of diabetic db/db mice through PKA-CREB-dependent induction of Gclc expression. Finally, oxidative stress determined by lipid peroxidation, neutrophil infiltration, and hepatic steatosis was attenuated in C3G-treated db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that the anthocyanin C3G has an effect of activating GSH synthesis through a novel antioxidant defense mechanism against excessive ROS production, contributing to the prevention of hyperglycemia-induced hepatic oxidative damage. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

              Silymarin, the active principle of the milk thistle Silybum marianum, protects experimental animals against various hepatotoxic substances. To determine the effect of silymarin on the outcome of patients with cirrhosis, a double blind, prospective, randomized study was performed in 170 patients with cirrhosis. 87 patients (alcoholic 46, non-alcoholic 41; 61 male, 26 female; Child A, 47; B, 37; C, 3; mean age 57) received 140 mg silymarin three times daily. 83 patients (alcoholic 45, non-alcoholic 38; 62 male, 21 female; Child A, 42; B, 32; C, 9: mean age 58) received a placebo. Non-compliant patients and patients who failed to come to a control were considered as 'drop outs' and were withdrawn from the study. All patients received the same treatment until the last patient entered had finished 2-years of treatment. The mean observation period was 41 months. There were 10 drop outs in the placebo group and 14 in the treatment group. In the placebo group, 37 (+2 drop outs) patients had died, and in 31 of these, death was related to liver disease. In the treatment group, 24 (+4 drop outs) had died, and in 18 of these, death was related to liver disease. The 4-year survival rate was 58 +/- 9% (S.E.) in silymarin-treated patients and 39 +/- 9% in the placebo group (P = 0.036). Analysis of subgroups indicated that treatment was effective in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (P = 0.01) and in patients initially rated 'Child A' (P = 0.03). No side effects of drug treatment were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2020
                31 March 2020
                : 2020
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pharmacology, Wroclaw Medical University, Jana Mikulicza-Radeckiego 2, 50-345 Wroclaw, Poland
                2Department of Fruit, Vegetable, and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 37, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Daniela Pellegrino

                Article
                10.1155/2020/2735790
                7150688
                Copyright © 2020 Maciej Danielewski et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Wroclaw Medical University
                Award ID: SUB.A080.19.024
                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine

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