Dezawa and her team have discovered a novel stem cell type that is an ideal candidate for regenerative medicine. Known as Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring cells (Muse cells), these are a type of stem cell that is essential in day-to-day repairs in the body. They reside all over the body, including in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and connective tissues of every organ. "The natural role of Muse cells is that they function as endogenous reparative stem cells in our body, contributing to minute reparative maintenance," Dezawa outlines. "Therefore, they are able to differentiate into the broad spectrum of cell-types that comprise our body. They accumulate to damaged tissue either through blood stream or local migration, spontaneously differentiate into tissue-compatible cell and repair the tissue." Muse cells also have specific systems to modulate immunoreactions. For example, HLA-G is one of the factors expressed in fetal cells in placenta that strongly suppress immunological attack from maternal immune system. Thus, fetal cells are protected from maternal immunological attack. Since Muse cells also express HLA-G, allogenic Muse cells can escape from immunorejection after systemic administration to patients. Through various tests Dezawa's team found that the allogenic Muse cells appeared to have no harmful effects and remain in the tissue after repair for more than half a year, and should therefore prove safe for general use. "As Muse cells need only be grown to create more of them, there is no need to work out how best to differentiate them in vitro," she points out. As a result of their huge potential, Dezawa has teamed up with Life Sciences Institute Inc, a healthcare and medicine provider, to begin trials and, hopefully, distribution of the treatment. The future of Muse cells is extremely promising. Human trials are beginning for their use in of cases acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The range of potential uses is almost limitless if these trials are successful. For Dezawa and her team this is culmination of many years of work, however, there is still much to find out. "Muse cells are still a very interesting target from a biological point of view," she confirms. "We are now planning to expand our study of their biology in order to compare the endogenous reparative systems of human against those of lower animals such as amphibians and fishes." Further foundational work such as this will continue to shed light on the clinical applications which Dezawa and her team will also remain heavily involved with.