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      Inhibition of the Spectraplakin Protein Microtubule Actin Crosslinking Factor 1 Sensitizes Glioblastomas to Radiation


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          Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) is a spectraplakin cytoskeletal crosslinking protein whose function and role in cancer biology has lacked investigation. Recent studies have identified MACF1 as a novel target in glioblastomas expressed in tissue from tumor patient explants but not normal brain tissue and when silenced has an antitumorigenic impact on these tumors. Radiation as a single agent therapy to treat glioblastomas has been used for decades and has done little to improve survival of individuals diagnosed with this disease. However, contemporary clinical radiotherapy protocols have provided evidence that combinatorial radiotherapy approaches confer a therapeutic benefit in glioblastoma patients. In this study MACF1 was investigated as a radiosensitization target in glioblastomas.


          To provide context of MACF1 in glioblastomas, The Cancer Genome Atlas expression analyses were performed in conjunction with genes associated with glioblastoma evolution, while a genetic inhibitory approach, cell migratory assays, and immunofluorescence procedures were used to evaluate responses to MACF1 suppression with radiation. Additionally, expression analyses were conducted to assess co-expression of mTOR signaling pathway regulators and MACF1 in glioblastoma patient samples.


          Our amalgamation approach demonstrated that negative regulation of MACF1, which was positively correlated with epidermal growth factor receptor and p70s6k expression, enhanced the sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to radiation as a consequence of reducing glioblastoma cell viability and migration. Mechanistically, the antitumorigenic effects on glioblastoma cell behaviors after radiation and impairing MACF1 function were associated with decreased expression of ribosomal protein S6, a downstream effector of p70s6k.


          MACF1 represents a diagnostic marker with target specificity in glioblastomas that can enhance the efficacy of radiation while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. This approach could potentially expand combinatorial radiation strategies for glioblastoma treatments via impairment of translational regulatory processes that contribute to poor patient survival.

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          Sublethal irradiation promotes migration and invasiveness of glioma cells: implications for radiotherapy of human glioblastoma.

          Human malignant gliomas are highly lethal neoplasms. Involved-field radiotherapy is the most important therapeutic measure. Most relapses originate from the close vicinity of the irradiated target field. Here, we report that sublethal doses of irradiation enhance the migration and invasiveness of human malignant glioma cells. This hitherto unknown biological effect of irradiation is p53 independent, involves enhanced alphavbeta3 integrin expression, an altered profile of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) expression and activity, altered membrane type 1 MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 expression, and an altered BCL-2/BAX rheostat favoring resistance to apoptosis. BCL-2 gene transfer and irradiation cooperate to enhance migration and invasiveness in a synergistic manner. Sublethal irradiation of rat 9L glioma cells results in the formation of a greater number of tumor satellites in the rat brain in vivo concomitant with enhanced MMP-2 and reduced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that the current concepts of involved-field radiotherapy for malignant glioma need to be reconsidered and that the pharmacological inhibition of migration and invasion during radiotherapy may represent a new therapeutic approach to improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy for malignant glioma.
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            Selective Inhibition of Parallel DNA Damage Response Pathways Optimizes Radiosensitization of Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells.

            Glioblastoma is the most common form of primary brain tumor in adults and is essentially incurable. Despite aggressive treatment regimens centered on radiotherapy, tumor recurrence is inevitable and is thought to be driven by glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) that are highly radioresistant. DNA damage response pathways are key determinants of radiosensitivity but the extent to which these overlapping and parallel signaling components contribute to GSC radioresistance is unclear. Using a panel of primary patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines, we confirmed by clonogenic survival assays that GSCs were significantly more radioresistant than paired tumor bulk populations. DNA damage response targets ATM, ATR, CHK1, and PARP1 were upregulated in GSCs, and CHK1 was preferentially activated following irradiation. Consequently, GSCs exhibit rapid G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint activation and enhanced DNA repair. Inhibition of CHK1 or ATR successfully abrogated G2-M checkpoint function, leading to increased mitotic catastrophe and a modest increase in radiation sensitivity. Inhibition of ATM had dual effects on cell-cycle checkpoint regulation and DNA repair that were associated with greater radiosensitizing effects on GSCs than inhibition of CHK1, ATR, or PARP alone. Combined inhibition of PARP and ATR resulted in a profound radiosensitization of GSCs, which was of greater magnitude than in bulk populations and also exceeded the effect of ATM inhibition. These data demonstrate that multiple, parallel DNA damage signaling pathways contribute to GSC radioresistance and that combined inhibition of cell-cycle checkpoint and DNA repair targets provides the most effective means to overcome radioresistance of GSC.
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              Inhibition of DNA double-strand break repair by the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 as a strategy for radiosensitization of glioblastoma.

              Inhibitors of the DNA damage response (DDR) have great potential for radiosensitization of numerous cancers, including glioblastomas, which are extremely radio- and chemoresistant brain tumors. Currently, there are no DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair inhibitors that have been successful in treating glioblastoma. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that the dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 can potently inhibit the two central DDR kinases, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), in vitro. Here, we tested whether NVP-BEZ235 could also inhibit ATM and DNA-PKcs in tumors in vivo and assessed its potential as a radio- and chemosensitizer in preclinical mouse glioblastoma models. The radiosensitizing effect of NVP-BEZ235 was tested by following tumor growth in subcutaneous and orthotopic glioblastoma models. Tumors were generated using the radioresistant U87-vIII glioma cell line and GBM9 neurospheres in nude mice. These tumors were then treated with ionizing radiation and/or NVP-BEZ235 and analyzed for DNA-PKcs and ATM activation, DSB repair inhibition, and attenuation of growth. NVP-BEZ235 potently inhibited both DNA-PKcs and ATM kinases and attenuated the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors. This resulted in striking tumor radiosensitization, which extended the survival of brain tumor-bearing mice. Notably, tumors displayed a higher DSB-load when compared with normal brain tissue. NVP-BEZ235 also sensitized a subset of subcutaneous tumors to temozolomide, a drug routinely used concurrently with ionizing radiation for the treatment of glioblastoma. These results demonstrate that it may be possible to significantly improve glioblastoma therapy by combining ionizing radiation with potent and bioavailable DNA repair inhibitors such as NVP-BEZ235. ©2013 AACR

                Author and article information

                Brain Tumor Res Treat
                Brain Tumor Res Treat
                Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
                The Korean Brain Tumor Society; The Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology; The Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology
                April 2020
                30 April 2020
                : 8
                : 1
                : 43-52
                Department of Biological Sciences, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN, USA.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Quincy A. Quick. Department of Biological Sciences, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Boulevard, Nashville, TN 37066, USA. Tel: +1-615-963-5768, Fax: +1-615-963-5747, qquick@ 123456tnstate.edu
                Author information
                Copyright © 2020 The Korean Brain Tumor Society, The Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology, and The Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 26 October 2019
                : 29 October 2019
                : 24 February 2020
                Funded by: National Institute of General Medical Sciences, CrossRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000057;
                Award ID: SC-3GM121178
                Original Article

                macf1,glioblastoma,radiation,ribosomal protein s6
                macf1, glioblastoma, radiation, ribosomal protein s6


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