Characterization of the progression of cellular states during human embryogenesis can provide insights into the origin of pediatric diseases. We examined the transcriptional states of neural crest- and mesoderm-derived lineages differentiating into adrenal glands, kidneys, endothelium, and hematopoietic tissue between post-conception weeks 6 and 14 of human development. Our results reveal transitions connecting intermediate mesoderm and progenitors of organ primordia, the hematopoietic system, and endothelial subtypes. Unexpectedly, by using a combination of single cell transcriptomics and lineage tracing, we found that intra-adrenal sympathoblasts at that stage are directly derived from the nerve-associated Schwann cell precursors similarly to local chromaffin cells, whereas the majority of extra-adrenal sympathoblasts arise from the migratory neural crest. In humans, this process persists during several weeks of development within the large intra-adrenal ganglia-like structures, which may also serve as reservoirs of originating cells in neuroblastoma.