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      Gene Expression Profiling in silico: Relative Expression of Candidate Angiogenesis Associated Genes in Renal Cell Carcinomas

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          Abstract

          Recent advances in gene expression profiling have led to the development of comprehensive databases which can be queried in various manners. In the present report, we have taken a list of genes previously associated with angiogenesis, either in in vivo or in in vitro models, and queried a commercial database established by GeneLogic<sup>®</sup> to determine the relative expression of these candidate genes in normal kidneys and in renal cell carcinomas (RCC). We identified a number of genes, including CXCR4, matrix metalloproteinase 9, thrombospondin 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, that were highly expressed in RCC versus normal tissue. One gene, hevin, appears to be selectively upregulated in RCC in contrast to downregulation of this gene in lung and colon tumors. This approach provides a powerful means to identify potential markers of tumor vascularization.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Computational analysis of microarray data.

          Microarray experiments are providing unprecedented quantities of genome-wide data on gene-expression patterns. Although this technique has been enthusiastically developed and applied in many biological contexts, the management and analysis of the millions of data points that result from these experiments has received less attention. Sophisticated computational tools are available, but the methods that are used to analyse the data can have a profound influence on the interpretation of the results. A basic understanding of these computational tools is therefore required for optimal experimental design and meaningful data analysis.
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            Vascular endothelial growth factor expression is increased in renal cell carcinoma.

            To compare the expression of VEGF in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and normal kidney. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed on tumour and normal adjacent kidney collected from 31 patients (29 RCC and 2 oncocytomas) as well as proliferating vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in culture. Expression of 3 VEGF isoforms was detected in normal renal parenchyma and all ROC by RT-PCR, but was not apparent in proliferating VEC. In 27 RCC, Western blot analysis demonstrated 3-37 fold increases in VEGF expression when compared to normal parenchyma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated VEGF staining of both tumour cells and adjacent vascular endothelium. Normal kidney showed no staining for VEGF. In the 2 remaining RCC and both oncocytomas VEGF was not increased. VEGF expression is increased in RCC and may have a paracrine effect in these tumours in stimulating angiogenesis.
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              Hevin is down-regulated in many cancers and is a negative regulator of cell growth and proliferation

              We have cloned a human Hevin cDNA from omental adipose tissue of different patients by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and shown a sequence variation due to a possible polymorphism at amino acid position 161 (E/G). Hevin protein expressed in vitro showed molecular weights of approximately 75 kDa and 150 kDa, suggesting that Hevin may form a homodimer in vitro. Using Northern blots and a human expressed sequence tAg database analysis, Hevin was shown to be widely expressed in human normal or non-neoplastic diseased tissues with various levels. In contrast to this, its expression was strongly down-regulated in most neoplastic cells or tissues tested. However, neither the mechanism nor the physiological meaning of this down-regulation is known. As an initial step towards investigating the functional role of Hevin in cell growth and differentiation, we transiently or stably expressed this gene in cancer cells (HeLa 3S) that are devoid of endogenous Hevin and measured DNA synthesis (cell proliferation) by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation. Hevin was shown to be a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Furthermore, we have shown that Hevin can inhibit progression of cells from G1 to S phase or prolong G1 phase. This is the first report which describes the function of Hevin in cell growth and proliferation. Through database analysis, Hevin was found to be located on chromosome 4 which contains loss of heterozygosity of many tumour suppressor genes. Taken together, these results suggest that Hevin may be a candidate for a tumour suppressor gene and a potential target for cancer diagnosis/therapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7383-2
                978-3-318-00822-7
                1660-2129
                2002
                2002
                05 April 2002
                : 10
                : 2
                : 114-119
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCardiovascular Research, bPathology and cBioinformatics, Genentech, South San Francisco, Calif., USA
                Article
                49906 Exp Nephrol 2002;10:114–119
                10.1159/000049906
                11937758
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 32, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/49906
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