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      Inhibition of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Differentiation by Adenoviral Transfer of Small Interfering RNA in vitro


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          RNA interference is applied to study gene function in different organisms and in various cell types. Little is known about the effect of RNA interference on human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vitro. To address this issue, short hairpin RNA targeting the human hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was transferred into human EPCs by an adenoviral vector. HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression was dramatically and specifically downregulated after adeno-small interfering RNA (siRNA)-HIF-1α infection in cells under hypoxia, a condition in which HIF-1α would have been induced. This effect persisted for at least 72 h and was accompanied by suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression. The expression of endothelial cell markers CD31, VEGF receptor 2 (Flk-1) and eNOS as well as NO production were also markedly decreased. Functional studies showed HIF-1α knockdown via adenoviral siRNA transfer inhibited EPC colony formation, differentiation, proliferation and migration. These data indicate that specific gene knockdown via adenoviral transfer of siRNA is feasible in EPCs, and the effect is long-lasting. Our findings raise the possibility that such long-term modified human EPCs may be used to treat hypoxic tumor metastases that are known to be resistant to conventional therapeutic regimes.

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          Most cited references 19

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          HIF-1 as a target for drug development.

          Sensing and responding to fluxes in oxygen tension is perhaps the single most important variable in physiology, and animal tissues have developed a number of essential mechanisms to cope with the stress of low physiological oxygen levels, or hypoxia. Among these coping mechanisms is the response mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, or HIF-1. HIF-1 is an essential component in changing the transcriptional repertoire of tissues as oxygen levels drop, and could prove to be a very important target for drug development, as treatments evolve for diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and stroke, in which hypoxia is a central aspect.
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            Targeting exogenous genes to tumor angiogenesis by transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells.

            Angiogenic tumor vessels are promising targets for the activity and the selective delivery of cancer therapeutics. The bone marrow contributes different cell types to the tumor stroma, including hematopoietic cells and, as recently suggested, vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Thus, transplantation of genetically modified bone marrow progenitors may represent a vehicle for the transport of gene therapy to tumors. We transduced bone marrow progenitors with lentiviral vectors expressing genes from transcription-regulatory elements of Tie2/Tek gene. When tumors were grown in the transplanted mice, the new vector marked a distinct hematopoietic population that 'homed' to the tumor and closely interacted with vascular ECs at the tumor periphery. These Tie2-expressing mononuclear (TEM) cells had a distinguishable phenotype and were present selectively at angiogenic sites. Unexpectedly, we did not find bone marrow-derived ECs in tumor vessels when we transplanted bone marrow progenitors constitutively expressing a marker gene from the Tie2 or ubiquitously active promoters. By delivering a 'suicide' gene, we selectively eliminated the TEM cells and achieved substantial inhibition of angiogenesis and slower tumor growth without systemic toxicity. Thus, TEM cells may account for the proangiogenic activity of bone marrow-derived cells in tumors, may represent a new target for drug development and may provide the means for selective gene delivery and targeted inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.
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              RNAi related mechanisms affect both transcriptional and posttranscriptional transgene silencing in Drosophila.

              Two types of transgene silencing were found for the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) transcription unit. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is Polycomb dependent and occurs when Adh is driven by the white eye color gene promoter. Full-length Adh transgenes are silenced posttranscriptionally at high copy number or by a pulsed increase over a threshold. The posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) exhibits molecular hallmarks typical of RNA interference (RNAi), including the production of 21--25 bp length sense and antisense RNAs homologous to the silenced RNA. Mutations in piwi, which belongs to a gene family with members required for RNAi, block PTGS and one aspect of TGS, indicating a connection between the two types of silencing.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                November 2006
                03 November 2006
                : 43
                : 6
                : 511-521
                Departments of Cardiology, aRenji Hospital and bXinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University College of Medicine; cDepartment of Tissue Engineering and Research, Shanghai Blood Center, and dInstitute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University College of Medicine and Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
                95964 J Vasc Res 2006;43:511–521
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 31, Pages: 11
                Research Paper


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