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      mRNA condensation fluidizes the cytoplasm

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      research-article
      1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 3
      bioRxiv
      Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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          Abstract

          The intracellular environment is packed with macromolecules of mesoscale size, and this crowded milieu significantly influences cell physiology. When exposed to stress, mRNAs released after translational arrest condense with RNA binding proteins, resulting in the formation of membraneless RNA protein (RNP) condensates known as processing bodies (P-bodies) and stress granules (SGs). However, the impact of the assembly of these condensates on the biophysical properties of the crowded cytoplasmic environment remains unclear. Here, we find that upon exposure to stress, polysome collapse and condensation of mRNAs increases mesoscale particle diffusivity in the cytoplasm. Increased mesoscale diffusivity is required for the efficient formation of Q-bodies, membraneless organelles that coordinate degradation of misfolded peptides that accumulate during stress. Additionally, we demonstrate that polysome collapse and stress granule formation has a similar effect in mammalian cells, fluidizing the cytoplasm at the mesoscale. We find that synthetic, light-induced RNA condensation is sufficient to fluidize the cytoplasm, demonstrating a causal effect of RNA condensation. Together, our work reveals a new functional role for stress-induced translation inhibition and formation of RNP condensates in modulating the physical properties of the cytoplasm to effectively respond to stressful conditions.

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          Genome-wide analysis in vivo of translation with nucleotide resolution using ribosome profiling.

          Techniques for systematically monitoring protein translation have lagged far behind methods for measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Here, we present a ribosome-profiling strategy that is based on the deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments and enables genome-wide investigation of translation with subcodon resolution. We used this technique to monitor translation in budding yeast under both rich and starvation conditions. These studies defined the protein sequences being translated and found extensive translational control in both determining absolute protein abundance and responding to environmental stress. We also observed distinct phases during translation that involve a large decrease in ribosome density going from early to late peptide elongation as well as widespread regulated initiation at non-adenine-uracil-guanine (AUG) codons. Ribosome profiling is readily adaptable to other organisms, making high-precision investigation of protein translation experimentally accessible.
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            Feature point tracking and trajectory analysis for video imaging in cell biology.

            This paper presents a computationally efficient, two-dimensional, feature point tracking algorithm for the automated detection and quantitative analysis of particle trajectories as recorded by video imaging in cell biology. The tracking process requires no a priori mathematical modeling of the motion, it is self-initializing, it discriminates spurious detections, and it can handle temporary occlusion as well as particle appearance and disappearance from the image region. The efficiency of the algorithm is validated on synthetic video data where it is compared to existing methods and its accuracy and precision are assessed for a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios. The algorithm is well suited for video imaging in cell biology relying on low-intensity fluorescence microscopy. Its applicability is demonstrated in three case studies involving transport of low-density lipoproteins in endosomes, motion of fluorescently labeled Adenovirus-2 particles along microtubules, and tracking of quantum dots on the plasma membrane of live cells. The present automated tracking process enables the quantification of dispersive processes in cell biology using techniques such as moment scaling spectra.
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              ATPase-Modulated Stress Granules Contain a Diverse Proteome and Substructure.

              Stress granules are mRNA-protein granules that form when translation initiation is limited, and they are related to pathological granules in various neurodegenerative diseases. Super-resolution microscopy reveals stable substructures, referred to as cores, within stress granules that can be purified. Proteomic analysis of stress granule cores reveals a dense network of protein-protein interactions and links between stress granules and human diseases and identifies ATP-dependent helicases and protein remodelers as conserved stress granule components. ATP is required for stress granule assembly and dynamics. Moreover, multiple ATP-driven machines affect stress granules differently, with the CCT complex inhibiting stress granule assembly, while the MCM and RVB complexes promote stress granule persistence. Our observations suggest that stress granules contain a stable core structure surrounded by a dynamic shell with assembly, disassembly, and transitions between the core and shell modulated by numerous protein and RNA remodeling complexes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                bioRxiv
                BIORXIV
                bioRxiv
                Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
                15 July 2023
                : 2023.05.30.542963
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Systems Genetics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States
                [2 ]Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York, United States
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1101/2023.05.30.542963
                10312499
                37398029
                0ae493d9-2bc0-450a-abc1-fe73950ea6ff

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use.

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