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      The simple isocratic HPLC—UV method for the simultaneous determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione in animal tissue


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          The aim of our work was to optimize and apply simple high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection (HPLC—UV) for simultaneous determination of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in biological matrix (specifically, the rat liver tissue was used herein), since the ratio between oxidized and reduced glutathione forms (GSSG—GSH) has been recognized as an important biological marker of oxidatively depleted GSH in oxidative stress (OS)-associated diseases and poisonings. An isocratic chromatographic separation of GSH and GSSG (2.8 min and 6.3 min, respectively) was performed with the mobile phase consisted of sodium perchlorate solution (pH adjusted to 2.8) at flow rate of 1 mL min −1, detection set at 215 nm, and column temperature of 40 °C. The method offers short run time, linearity in the range of 0.01—200 μM concentration for both compounds ( R 2 = 1), low limits of detection and quantification (GSH: 0.18 μM and 0.56 μM, GSSG: 0.52 μM and 1.58 μM, respectively), precision, accuracy (bias < 2%), and high reproducibility.

          Through suitable sample handling, an overestimation of GSSG was prevented. High recovery (>99%) was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of GSH and GSSG in liver homogenates of Wistar rats intraperitoneally exposed to cadmium (Cd) (1 mg kg −1 CdCl 2/21 days). Regardless of other Cd-mediated hepatotoxicity mechanisms, herein, we have exclusively interpreted/emphasized oxidative GSH depletion.

          The presented method is acceptable for a routine analysis of GSH and GSSG in biological matrix, while the calculated ratio GSSG—GSH is considered as a valuable OS marker.

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          Author and article information

          Acta Chromatographica
          Acta Chromatographica
          Akadémiai Kiadó
          March 2017
          : 29
          : 1
          : 67-84
          [1 ]Department for Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade , Vojvode Stepe 450, 11221 Belgrade, Serbia
          [2 ] Institute for Medical Research of Medical Military Academy , Crnotravska 17, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
          [3 ]Institute of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade , 31a Deligradska Street, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
          [4 ]Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University , Rome, Italy
          Author notes
          © 2017 The Author(s)

          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

          : 10 April 2016
          Page count
          Pages: 18
          Original Research Paper

          Materials properties,Nanomaterials,Chemistry,Nanotechnology,Analytical chemistry,Thin films & surfaces
          oxidized/reduced glutathione,HPLC—UV,cadmium,hepatotoxicity


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