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      Antigenic differences between European and American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are encoded by the carboxyterminal portion of viral open reading frame 3


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          Antigenic differences between European and American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were revealed by serologic analysis of a recombinant protein derived from PRRSV open reading frame 3 (ORF 3). The hydrophilic carboxyterminal 199 amino acids encoded by the ORF 3 of a European (Lelystad) isolate of PRRSV were expressed as a recombinant fusion protein (BP03-P) in a baculovirus gene expression system. Sera from gnotobiotic swine exposed to prototypic reference European and American isolates of PRRSV and sera from conventionally reared European and American swine convalescing from naturally acquired PRRSV infections were used to characterize the BP03-P protein. Sera from gnotobiotic and conventionally reared swine exposed to European isolates of PRRSV were significantly more reactive ( P < 0.01) with BP03-P than were the corresponding American PRRSV antisera using the indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). Prototypic European, but not American, PRRSV antisera also recognized BP03-P using western immunoblotting and radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) procedures. However, gnotobiotically derived antiserum to an atypical American-origin PRRSV was reactive with BP03-P by both IPMA and western immunoblot. Despite a predicted potential for N-linked glycosylation, studies with tunicamycin and peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) indicated that BP03-P was not N-glycosylated in either insect cell cultures or Trichoplusia ni larvae infected with the recombinant baculovirus. Sera from rabbits inoculated with BP03-P failed to neutralize both the European (Lelystad) and American (ATCC VR-2332) reference isolates of PRRSV and did not react by IPMA with PRRSV-infected cell cultures. Taken together, the data suggest that the carboxyterminal portion of PRRSV ORF 3 encodes a non-neutralizing viral peptide that is partially responsible for the serologic differences noted between European and most American isolates of PRRSV.

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          Lelystad Virus, the Causative Agent of Porcine Epidemic Abortion and Respiratory Syndrome (PEARS), Is Related to LDV and EAV

          The genome of Lelystad virus (LV), the causative agent of porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome (previously known as mystery swine disease), was shown to be a polyadenylated RNA molecule. The nucleotide sequence of the LV genome was determined from a set of overlapping cDNA clones. A consecutive sequence of 15,088 nucleotides was obtained. Eight open reading frames (ORFs) that might encode virus-specific proteins were identified. ORF1a and ORF1b are predicted to encode the vital RNA polymerase because the amino acid sequence contains sequence elements that are conserved in RNA polymerases of the torovirus Berne virus (BEV), equine arteritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), the coronaviruses, and other positive-strand RNA viruses. A heptanucleotide slippery sequence (UUUAAAC) and a putative pseudoknot structure, which are both required for efficient ribosomal frameshifting during translation of the RNA polymerase ORF 1b of BEV, EAV, and the coronaviruses, were identified in the overlapping region of ORF1a and ORF1b of LV. ORFs 2 to 6 probably encode viral membrane-associated proteins, whereas ORF7 is predicted to encode the nucleocapsid protein. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the ORFs identified in the genome of LV, LDV, and EAV indicated that LV and LDV are more closely related than LV and EAV. A 3′ nested set of six subgenomic RNAs was detected in LV-infected cells. These subgenomic RNAs contain a common leader sequence that is derived from the 5′ end of the genomic RNA and that is joined to the 3′ terminal body sequence. Our results indicate that LV is closely related evolutionarily to LDV and EAV, both members of a recently proposed family of positive-strand RNA viruses, the Arteriviridae.
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            Enhanced replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in a homogeneous subpopulation of MA-104 cell line.

            Two different cell populations, high- (MARC-145) and low-permissive cell clones (L-1) to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus, were derived from MA-104 cell line (parent cell: P) by cell cloning. Maximum virus yields in MARC-145, P, and L-1 cell clones were 10(8.5), 10(3.5), and 10(2.5) tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50)/0.1 ml, respectively. The MARC-145 cell clone supported replication of all 11 different porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates that were tested. These results indicated that the MARC-145 cells will be useful for PRRS virus replication.
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              Characterization of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (isolate ATCC VR-2332).

              The characterization of an isolate of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (ATCC VR-2332) is reported. A commercial cell line (CL2621) was used for the propagation of the virus for all assays. Laboratory studies indicate that this isolate is a fastidious, nonhemagglutinating, enveloped RNA virus. Cesium chloride-purified virions visualized by electron microscopy were spherical particles with an average diameter of 62 nm (range: 48-83 nm) and a 25-30 nm core surrounded by an envelope. Virus replication was restricted to the cytoplasm, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. The virus did not react serologically with antisera to several common porcine viruses or with antisera to known viruses in the alphavirus, rubivirus, pestivirus, and ungrouped lactic dehydrogenase virus genera of the Togaviridae. However, convalescent sow sera and rabbit hyperimmune sera neutralized the SIRS virus at titers of 1:256 and 1:512, respectively. The virus was stable at 4 and -70 C, but was labile at 37 and 56 C. The properties of this isolate of SIRS virus resemble those of the family Togaviridae but do not match the described genera.

                Author and article information

                Vet Microbiol
                Vet. Microbiol
                Veterinary Microbiology
                Published by Elsevier B.V.
                10 March 2000
                April 1995
                10 March 2000
                : 44
                : 1
                : 65-76
                [a ]U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Veterinary Services Laboratories Ames, IA, USA
                [b ]Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University Brookings, SD, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, P.O. Box 844, Ames, IA 50010, USA. Tel: (515) 239-8551; fax: (515) 239-8348
                Copyright © 1995 Published by Elsevier B.V.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 28 April 1994
                : 7 September 1994

                Veterinary medicine
                antigen, virus,arterivirus,serodiagnosis,porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus,recombinant protein


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