The taxonomy of the Recent members of the crustacean subclass Pentastomida is based on nine accepted family names derived from 12 available names, 24 generic names derived from 37 available names (plus two incorrect subsequent spellings and one nomen nudum) and 124 accepted species names derived from 183 available names of which six remain incertae sedis as to their generic assignment. Compilation of this list has revealed that existing catalogues have included misspellings, wrong attributions and dates of the authors of taxa, and incorrectly nominated type-species. These are corrected here with reference to the original descriptions and diagnoses. Notably, all families except one were erected much earlier and by authors other than Fain (1961), who was credited by Martin & Davis (2001) and other authors before and afterwards with seven of the nine families they recognised. Other significant taxonomic anomalies are revealed. Raillietiellidae Sambon, 1922 is a senior synonym of Cephalobaenidae Heymons, 1922, the name in popular usage for the family including Cephalobaena Heymons, 1922 and Raillietiella Sambon, in Vaney & Sambon, 1910; here the two genera are placed in separate families following Almeida & Christoffersen (1999). Heymonsia Hett, 1934, considered a junior synonym of Raillietiella, is a nomen nudum. Raillietiella geckonis (Diesing, 1850) is a potential senior synonym of several SE Asian species of this genus. Raillietiella frenata Ali, Riley & Self, 1981 is a widely used species name but is a subjective junior synonym of R. hebitihamata Self & Kuntz, 1960 according to its own authors. Morphological and molecular evidence suggest that R. indica Gedoelst, 1921 is a subjective senior synonym of both species. The priority of Linguatulidae Haldeman, 1851 over Linguatulida Vogt, 1851, erected as a family in the same year, is established by applying the First Reviser rule. Linguatula serrata Frölich, 1789 is herein selected as the type-species of Prionoderma, making it an objective synonym of Linguatula Frölich, 1789. The priority of L. serrata over Taenia rhinaris Meyer, 1789 and T.capraea Abildgaard, 1789, all published in the same year, is established by applying the First Reviser rule. The purported synonymy of Netrorhynchus Zenker, 1827, also misspelled Nettorhynchus, with Armillifer Sambon, 1922 would seem to be ill-founded and without popular support. Armillifer australis Heymons, 1935, published as a subspecies of A. moniliformis (Diesing, 1836), is both a senior synonym and a homonym of A. australis Riley & Self, 1981. Humboldt (1812) is confirmed as the author of Porocephalus Humboldt, 1812 and P. crotali Humboldt, 1812. Pentastomidae Shipley, 1909 is an older family name than its subjective synonym Porocephalinae Sambon, 1922, but prevailing usage allows the latter to be retained as a family name. Cayerina mirabilis Kishida, 1927 is a genus and species from a Japanese frog that has not appeared in the more recent pentastome literature. Sebekia minor (Wedl, 1861) is an objective senior synonym of the more widely used S. wedli Gigioli, in Sambon, 1922. The importance of the many junior synonyms will become evident should refined morphological and molecular evidence reveal cryptic species or greater host-specificity than presently recognised.