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Early-phase trials with monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 (programmed cell death
protein 1) and PD-L1 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1) have demonstrated durable
clinical responses in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, current
assays for the prognostic and/or predictive role of tumor PD-L1 expression are not
standardized with respect to either quantity or distribution of expression.