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      Structural Stability and Viability of Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria: A Review : Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria…

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          Interactions between alginate and chitosan biopolymers characterized using FTIR and XPS.

          This study investigates alginate-chitosan polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) in the form of a film, a precipitate, as well as a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The focus of this study is to fully characterize, using the complementary techniques of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in combination with solution stability evaluation, the interactions between alginate and chitosan in the PECs. In the FTIR spectra, no significant change in the band position of the two carbonyl vibrations from alginate occurs upon interaction with different ionic species. However, protonation of the carboxylate group causes a new band to appear at 1710 cm(-1), as anticipated. Partial protonation of the amine group of chitosan causes the appearance of one new band ( approximately 1530 cm(-1)) due to one of the -NH3+ vibrational modes (the other mode overlaps the amide I band). Importantly, the position of the two main bands in the spectral region of interest in partly protonated chitosan films is not dependent on the extent of protonation. XPS N 1s narrow scans can, however, be used to assess the degree of amine protonation. In our alginate-chitosan film, precipitate, and LbL assembly, the bands observed in the FTIR correspond to the species -COO- and -NH3+, but their position is not different from each of the single components. Thus, the conclusion of the study is that FTIR cannot be used directly to identify the presence of PECs. However, in combination with XPS (survey and narrow N 1s scans) and solution stability evaluation, a more complete description of the structure can be obtained. This conclusion challenges the assignment of FTIR spectra in the literature.
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            Probiotic bacteria: selective enumeration and survival in dairy foods.

            A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and Lactobacillus casei. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. In order to assess viability of probiotic bacteria, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Viability of probiotic bacteria is important in order to provide health benefits. Viability of probiotic bacteria can be improved by appropriate selection of acid and bile resistant strains, use of oxygen impermeable containers, two-step fermentation, micro-encapsulation, stress adaptation, incorporation of micronutrients such as peptides and amino acids and by sonication of yogurt bacteria. This review will cover selective enumeration and survival of probiotic bacteria in dairy foods.
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              Recent advances in microencapsulation of probiotics for industrial applications and targeted delivery

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
                Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
                Wiley-Blackwell
                15414337
                November 2013
                November 15 2013
                : 12
                : 6
                : 614-628
                Article
                10.1111/1541-4337.12030
                0afac802-d259-412f-80fa-71b989684ad1
                © 2013

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/1541-4337.12030

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