3
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Clinical Features and Mortality Associated with Severe Malaria in Adults in Southern Mauritania

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Severe malaria in adults is not well-studied in Sahelian Africa. Clinical features and mortality associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in adult patients hospitalized in Kiffa, southern Mauritania, were analysed. Patients over 15 years old admitted for severe malaria between August 2016 and December 2019 were included in the present retrospective study. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to define severe malaria. The presenting clinical characteristics and outcome were compared. Of 4266 patients hospitalized during the study period, 573 (13.4%) had a positive rapid diagnostic test for malaria, and 99 (17.3%; mean age, 37.5 years; range 15–79 years; sex-ratio M/F, 2.1) satisfied the criteria for severe malaria. On admission, the following signs and symptoms were observed in more than one-fourth of the patients: fever (98%), impairment of consciousness (81.8%), multiple convulsions (70.7%), cardiovascular collapse (61.6%), respiratory distress (43.4%), severe anaemia ≤ 80 g/L (36.4%), haemoglobinuria (27.3%), and renal failure (25.3%). Patients were treated with parenteral quinine or artemether. Fourteen (14.1%) patients died. Multiple convulsions, respiratory distress, severe anaemia, haemoglobinuria, acute renal failure, jaundice, and abnormal bleeding occurred more frequently ( p < 0.05) in deceased patients. Mortality due to severe falciparum malaria is high among adults in southern Mauritania. An adoption of the WHO-recommended first-line treatment for severe malaria, such as parenteral artesunate, is required to lower the mortality rate associated with severe malaria.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Artesunate versus quinine for treatment of severe falciparum malaria: a randomised trial.

          In the treatment of severe malaria, intravenous artesunate is more rapidly acting than intravenous quinine in terms of parasite clearance, is safer, and is simpler to administer, but whether it can reduce mortality is uncertain. We did an open-label randomised controlled trial in patients admitted to hospital with severe falciparum malaria in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and Myanmar. We assigned individuals intravenous artesunate 2.4 mg/kg bodyweight given as a bolus (n=730) at 0, 12, and 24 h, and then daily, or intravenous quinine (20 mg salt per kg loading dose infused over 4 h then 10 mg/kg infused over 2-8 h three times a day; n=731). Oral medication was substituted when possible to complete treatment. Our primary endpoint was death from severe malaria, and analysis was by intention to treat. We assessed all patients randomised for the primary endpoint. Mortality in artesunate recipients was 15% (107 of 730) compared with 22% (164 of 731) in quinine recipients; an absolute reduction of 34.7% (95% CI 18.5-47.6%; p=0.0002). Treatment with artesunate was well tolerated, whereas quinine was associated with hypoglycaemia (relative risk 3.2, 1.3-7.8; p=0.009). Artesunate should become the treatment of choice for severe falciparum malaria in adults.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Treatment seeking for malaria: a review of recent research.

             S C McCombie (1996)
            A review of literature on treatment seeking for malaria was undertaken to identify patterns of care seeking, and to assess what is known about the adequacy of the treatments used. There is considerable variation in treatment seeking patterns, with use of the official sector ranging from 10-99% and self-purchase of drugs ranging from 4-87%. The majority of malaria cases receive some type of treatment, and multiple treatments are common. The response to most episodes begins with self-treatment, and close to half of cases rely exclusively on self-treatment, usually with antimalarials. A little more than half use the official health sector or village health workers at some point, with delays averaging three or more days. Exclusive reliance on traditional methods is extremely rare, although traditional remedies are often combined with modern medicines. Although use of antimalarials is widespread, underdosing is extremely common. Further research is needed to answer the question of what proportion of true malaria cases get appropriate treatment with effective antimalarial drugs, and to identify the best strategies to improve the situation. Interventions for the private and public sector need to be developed and evaluated. More information is needed on the specific drugs used, considering resistance patterns in a particular area. In order to guide future policy development, future studies should define the nature of self-treatment, record multiple treatments and attempt to identify the proportions of all cases who begin treatment with antimalarials at standardized time intervals. Hypothetical questions were found to be of limited usefulness in estimating rates of actual treatments. Whenever possible, studies should focus on actual episodes of illness and consider supplementing retrospective surveys with prospective diary-type methods. In addition, it is important to determine the specificity of local illness terms in identifying true malaria cases and the extent to which local perceptions of severity are consistent with clinical criteria for severity and symptoms of complicated malaria.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Incidence and admission rates for severe malaria and their impact on mortality in Africa

              Background Appropriate treatment of life-threatening Plasmodium falciparum malaria requires in-patient care. Although the proportion of severe cases accessing in-patient care in endemic settings strongly affects overall case fatality rates and thus disease burden, this proportion is generally unknown. At present, estimates of malaria mortality are driven by prevalence or overall clinical incidence data, ignoring differences in case fatality resulting from variations in access. Consequently, the overall impact of preventive interventions on disease burden have not been validly compared with those of improvements in access to case management or its quality. Methods Using a simulation-based approach, severe malaria admission rates and the subsequent severe malaria disease and mortality rates for 41 malaria endemic countries of sub-Saharan Africa were estimated. Country differences in transmission and health care settings were captured by use of high spatial resolution data on demographics and falciparum malaria prevalence, as well as national level estimates of effective coverage of treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Reported and modelled estimates of cases, admissions and malaria deaths from the World Malaria Report, along with predicted burden from simulations, were combined to provide revised estimates of access to in-patient care and case fatality rates. Results There is substantial variation between countries’ in-patient admission rates and estimated levels of case fatality rates. It was found that for many African countries, most patients admitted for in-patient treatment would not meet strict criteria for severe disease and that for some countries only a small proportion of the total severe cases are admitted. Estimates are highly sensitive to the assumed community case fatality rates. Re-estimation of national level malaria mortality rates suggests that there is substantial burden attributable to inefficient in-patient access and treatment of severe disease. Conclusions The model-based methods proposed here offer a standardized approach to estimate the numbers of severe malaria cases and deaths based on national level reporting, allowing for coverage of both curative and preventive interventions. This makes possible direct comparisons of the potential benefits of scaling-up either category of interventions. The profound uncertainties around these estimates highlight the need for better data. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12936-016-1650-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Trop Med Infect Dis
                Trop Med Infect Dis
                tropicalmed
                Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
                MDPI
                2414-6366
                22 December 2020
                March 2021
                : 6
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Kiffa Regional Hospital, Assaba, Mauritania; bboushab@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Unité de Recherche Génomes et Milieux, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Nouakchott Al-Aasriya, Nouveau Campus Universitaire, BP 5026, Nouakchott, Mauritania; salem0606@ 123456yahoo.fr (M.S.O.A.S.); alimedsalem@ 123456gmail.com (A.O.M.S.B.)
                [3 ]Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Aix-Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, 13005 Marseille, France; philippe.parola@ 123456univ-amu.fr
                [4 ]Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire (IHU)-Méditerranée Infection, 13005 Marseille, France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lkbasco@ 123456yahoo.fr
                Article
                tropicalmed-06-00001
                10.3390/tropicalmed6010001
                7838900
                33375214
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article