Nephrolithiasis is a common disease that seriously affects the health and life quality of patients. Despite the reported effect of hyperoside (Hyp) against nephrolithiasis, the specific mechanism has not been clarified. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating the effect and potential mechanism of Hyp on renal injury and calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition.
Rat and cell models of renal calculi were constructed by ethylene glycol (EG) and CaOx induction, respectively. The renal histopathological damage, CaOx crystal deposition, and renal function damage of rats were assessed by HE staining, Pizzolato staining, and biochemical detection of blood and urine parameters. MTT and crystal-cell adhesion assays were utilized to determine the activity of HK-2 cells and crystal adhesion ability, biochemical detection and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the levels of oxidative stress-related substances and inflammatory factors, and western blot to test the expression levels of proteins related to the AMPK/Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Briefly speaking, Hyp could improve the renal histopathological injury and impaired renal function, reduce the deposition of CaOx crystals in the renal tissue of rats with renal calculi, and decrease the adhesion of crystals to CaOx-treated HK-2 cells. Besides, Hyp also significantly inhibited oxidative stress response. Furthermore, Hyp was associated with the downregulation of malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase, and reactive oxygen species and upregulation of superoxide dismutase activity. Additionally, Hyp treatment also suppressed inflammatory response and had a correlation with declined levels of interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor. Further exploration of mechanism manifested that Hyp might play a protective role through promoting AMPK phosphorylation and nuclear translation of Nrf2 to activate the AMPK/Nrf2 signaling pathway.