Thus far, 335 currently valid species in 82 genera and 21 families of mayflies ( Ephemeroptera ) have been documented from Canada, remarkably representing a little more than half of the combined species richness of Canada, Mexico and the USA. The current known species richness for Canada represents an increase of 11.3% as compared to that reported in 1979. Species richness is greatest in the families Heptageniidae (83), Baetidae (76) and Ephemerellidae (45). A total of 328 DNA Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) are available for Canadian mayfly species. The greatest net gains anticipated for future species tallies are for Baetidae (25), Heptageniidae (10) and Leptophlebiidae (10). A total of 66 more species overall is anticipated for Canada, with greatest gains potentially coming from lentic habitats across Canada and from far eastern and far western areas in general. However, even metropolitan areas should not be overlooked for the potential of discovery.